Response Measures

Introduction

Impacts of implementation of response measures is understood as the effects arising from the implementation of mitigation policies and actions taken by Parties under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, and how these mitigation policies/actions could have “in-jurisdiction” and “out-of-jurisdiction” or cross-border impacts. To achieve the 2oC goal of the Paris Agreement (and even more so the 1.5oC) requires enhanced ambition and effective implementation of GHG mitigation abatement policies and actions. It is thus imperative that there is an increased urgent need to assess, analyze, address and report these cross-border environmental, social and economic impacts.

These impacts could be positive or negative, therefore the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement seek to minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts of implementation of mitigation policies and actions.

Background

Parties shall take into full consideration, in the implementation of the commitments of the Convention, the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the impact of the implementation of response measures. When addressing climate change concerns, the Kyoto Protocol commits Parties to strive to minimize adverse economic, social and environmental impacts on other Parties, especially developing country Parties, and in particular those identified in Articles 4.8 and 4.9 of the Convention, taking into account Article 3 of the Convention. Article 4.8 of the Convention and Articles 2.3 and 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol provide a basis for addressing the impact of the implementation of response measures. Response measures are further being addressed in the context of the Bali Roadmap process, the Cancun Agreements and the Durban Outcome.

The Paris Agreement states, Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concern of Parties with economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties. The Agreement further institutionalized the discussion on this issue.

Forum on the impacts of the implementation of response measures

COP 24 adopted the new functions, work programme and modalities of the forum on impact of implementation of response measures.

It was also agreed that one single forum would report to all supreme bodies COP, CMP and CMA (FCCC/CP/2018/L.17)

The Katowice Committee of Experts on Impacts of Implementation of Response Measures (KCI) was established to support the forum by undertaking technical work.

Four areas of the work programme areas included

     i)    Economic diversification and transformation;

     ii)   Just transition of the workforce, and the creation of decent work and quality jobs;

     iv)  Assessment and analysis of the impacts of the implementation of response measures and

     v)   Facilitating the development of tools and methodologies to assess the impacts of the implementation of response measures.

The review of the functions, work programme and modalities is mandated to take place at SB 59 with a view to provide recommendations to COP at its twenty ninth session. The six-year work plan of the forum will be developed at SB 50 and the mid-term review will take place at SB 56.

Improved Forum

The improved forum was established at COP 21 in 2015 .

After a review of the work convened from SB 36 (Bonn, 2012) to SB 39 (Warsaw, 2013), the COP at its 21st session (Paris, 2015) (Decision 11/CP.21) decided to continue and improve the forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures. This forum was operated as a contact group jointly under SBSTA and SBI and provided a platform allowing Parties to share, in an interactive manner, information, experiences, case studies, best practices and views, and to facilitate assessment and analysis of the impact of the implementation of response measures, with a view to recommending specific actions.

An Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (TEG) was established to elaborate on technical work of the areas contained in the work programme.

Two areas of the work programme areas included i) economic diversification and transformation and ii) Just transition of the workforce, and the creation of decent work and quality jobs. The three-year-old work plan can be downloaded here: (FCCC/SB/2016/L.2/Rev.1)

 

Forum on response measures

COP 17 established a forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures

Recognizing the importance of avoiding or minimizing negative impacts of response measures, the Conference of the Parties (COP) at its 17th session (Durban, 2011) adopted a work programme on the impact of the implementation of response measures under the subsidiary bodies (Decision 8/CP.17). The forum shall be convened by the Chairs of the subsidiary bodies, to implement the work programme and to provide a platform allowing Parties to share, in an interactive manner, information, experiences, case studies, best practices and views.

Eight areas of workprogramme:

  1. Sharing of information and expertise, including reporting and promoting understanding of positive and negative impacts of response measures;

  2. Cooperation on response strategies;

  3. Assessment and analysis of impacts;

  4. Exchanging experience and discussion of opportunities for economic diversification and transformation;

  5. Economic modelling and socio-economic trends;

  6. Relevant aspects relating to the implementation of decisions 1/CP.10, 1/CP.13 and 1/CP.16 and Article 2, paragraph 3, and Article 3, paragraph 14, of the Kyoto Protocol;

  7. Just transition of the workforce, and the creation of decent work and quality jobs; and

  8. Building collective and individual learning towards a transition to a low greenhouse gas emitting society