Response measures models -IMAGE


Name and contact of the organization

Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency

PO Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, The Netherlands 

Tel: +31 (0) 30 274 274 5

Fax:+31 (0) 30 274 44 7

Description of model

IMAGE is a multi-disciplinary, integrated system of models designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-atmosphere system.  Its particular strength is that it can assess the social and economic impacts of policies aimed at reducing emissions from land-use change.

The model can forecast up to 2100 and has a spatial scale grid of 0.5 x 0.5 degrees latitude-longitude for climate, land-use and land-cover processes, and region-level split for socio-economic indicators.  The model is mainly used to:

  1. investigate linkages and feedbacks in the global society-biosphere-atmosphere system;

  2. assess consequences of global policies;

  3. analyse relative effectiveness of various policy options addressing global change.

Particular relevance

The IMAGE model is relevant in assessing the socio-economic impacts of the climate change mitigation policies, in particular the impacts on the agricultural economy, land use and trade, as well as energy demand and supply.


World, divided into 26 regions

Model applications

IMAGE scenario studies - Using the IMAGE model the authors give examples of different types of scenarios, depending on the focus of the analysis. In particular they look at the different purposes of multiple baseline scenarios to compare scenarios including response measures against  (

Organization's main area of research

Policy analysis in the field of environment, nature and spatial planning.

Other projects / reseach

PBL publications (