Response Measures Models - POLES


Name and contact of the organization


LEPII-EPE, BP 47 38040, Grenoble CEDEX 9, France

Tel: ++33 (0)4 56 52 85 70 
Fax: ++33 (0)4 56 52 85 71

Description of model

The POLES model is a partial equilibrium model for the world energy system up to 2030. Market equilibrium is simulated by matching energy supply and demand which reply to changes in the international prices with a certain time lag.  It is therefore ideally suited to assessing the impacts of different pricing regimes, for example through taxation, but also of the development and diffusion of technology.  The model is designed by connecting international, regional and national submodels.

The model is mainly used for: 1) running world energy scenarios (energy demand, supply, trade, prices) by world region; 2) inter-technology substitution over time; 3) simulation of CO2 emission constraints and emissions trading; and 4) analysing the impact of technological change on emissions.

Particular relevance

The POLES model is useful for analysing the adoption and diffusion of new technologies, including low-carbon options, as well as looking at inter-technology substitution across time.



Model applications

Research using POLES (

World Energy Technology Outlook 2050 - This project aims at drawing long-term energy scenarios for the European Union in a world context. It takes into account expected economic and technological development. All the projections to 2050 have been made using POLES (

GRP - Greenhouse gas emission Reduction Pathways in the UNFCCC process to 2025. The report uses results from the POLES model to look at different technological solutions to reducing emission levels   (

Organization's main area of research

Energy systems analysis and economics, macroeconomics and environmental economics.

Other projects / reseach