In the Cancun Agreements in 2010, it was established that the increase in the global
average temperature should remain below
2 °C. At that time, more than 90 Parties made conditional and unconditional
pledges to reduce
emissions by 2020. These pledges represent approximately 80 per cent of global total
emissions but, while significant, will not be sufficient to meet the 2 °C goal.
The UNEP Emissions Gap Report (2013) found that there is a need for additional
reductions between 8 and 12 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2020. The
report also found that there is much untapped potential to reduce emissions at a
relatively low cost. Given rising emissions, it is urgent that ways are explored as
to how this potential can be tapped. The findings of the recent reports by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change highlight the need for urgent action to close the gap by tapping into this
Parties to the convention are very aware of this and have emphasized the need for a
game-changing and increased effort that aligns with both climate and development
goals and taps into the existing potential to reduce emissions. But the road to
increased emission reductions through, for example technologies such as renewable
energy, is often still littered with barriers and lacks adequate support. Addressing
these barriers through effective scalable policies, practices and actions can take
time but is urgently needed. In response to this, Parties have moved to the technical
examination of opportunities. This technical process aims to examine effective
emission reduction policies, barriers to their implementation and the scaling-up,
incentives and feasible options for support.
The technical examination process consists of regular in-session thematic technical
expert meetings and focused in-depth inter-sessional work to be conducted by Parties,
international organizations and partnerships throughout the year.
At the March session of the ADP, policy options and opportunities to scale up
renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency improvements were explored during
two technical expert meetings. Specific follow up actions were identified as
summarized in the technical summaries from the meetings and in the
updated technical paper and its
addendum on mitigation benefits of actions, initiatives and options to enhance
mitigation ambition presented to the ADP in June.
During the June 2014 session of the ADP, the two technical examination meetings
looked at the opportunities in Land Use and Urban Environments, and were complemented by a
Forum on Cities and
Sub-National Authorities. At the October session (ADP 2-6), technical expert meetings
focused on opportunities for action on non-CO2 greenhouse gases and carbon capture, use and storage. Ultimately, a
successful outcome of this process would be a policy menu and options for overcoming
barriers and the lack of support so that more transformational action can be taken on
the ground in the period before 2020.
In accordance with its mandates in relation to pre-2020 climate action, the ADP
continued to consider how to progress its work further, including how the technical
examination process could be further advanced.
In this context, a dedicated
meeting on ways and means to advance the technical examination process in 2015
was held on 10 February, during the eighth part of the second session of the ADP