What is the connection and why is Gender and Climate Change important?
Climate change has a greater impact on those sections of the population, in all countries, that are most reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods and/or who have the least capacity to respond to natural hazards, such as droughts, landslides, floods and hurricanes. Women commonly face higher risks and greater burdens from the impacts of climate change in situations of poverty, and the majority of the world’s poor are women. Women’s unequal participation in decision-making processes and labour markets compound inequalities and often prevent women from fully contributing to climate-related planning, policy-making and implementation.
Yet, women can (and do) play a critical role in response to climate change due to their local knowledge of and leadership in e.g. sustainable resource management and/or leading sustainable practices at the household and community level. Women’s participation at the political level has resulted in greater responsiveness to citizen’s needs, often increasing cooperation across party and ethnic lines and delivering more sustainable peace. At the local level, women’s inclusion at the leadership level has lead to improved outcomes of climate related projects and policies. On the contrary, if policies or projects are implemented without women’s meaningful participation it can increase existing inequalities and decrease effectiveness.
Parties to the UNFCCC have recognized the importance of involving women and men equally in UNFCCC processes and in the development and implementation of national climate policies that are gender-responsive by establishing a dedicated agenda item under the Convention addressing issues of gender and climate change and by including overarching text in the Paris Agreement.
Decision 3/CP.23 established a gender action plan and also decided that the topic for the 2018 workshop would be based on activity E.1 of that action plan. The gender action plan invites Parties and observers oganizations to provide submissions on the topics set out in activity E.1. (Available at http://www4.unfccc.int/sites/submissionportal/Pages/Home.aspx)
Decision 21/CP.22 extends the Lima work plan on gender (LWPG) to COP 25 in 2019. In 2017, a gender action plan was developed by the SBI. The informal report of the workshop to develop possible elements of the action plan is available here. The technical paper on achieving gender balance under UNFCCC is available here. The draft conclusions proposed by the Chair at SBI 47 on the establishment of a gender action plan can be found here