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National Reports

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national reports and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

NCs from Annex I Parties provide information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs); national circumstances; policies and measures; vulnerability assessment; financial resources and transfer of technology; education, training, and public awareness; and any other details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention.

Annex I Parties that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol must include supplementary information in their national communications and their annual inventories of emissions and removals of GHGs to demonstrate compliance with the Kyoto Protocol's commitments.

Annex I Parties submit NCs periodically, according to dates set by the COP. The deadline for the sixth NC, (1 January 2014), was agreed upon in Cancún (decisions 9/CP.16 and 10/CMP.6).
BRs outline Annex I Parties' progress in achieving emission reductions and the provision of financial, technology, and capacity-building support to non-Annex I Parties.

The first BR should be submitted by 1 January 2014, and the second and subsequent BR two years after the due date of a full NC (i.e. 2016, 2018)
Annex I Parties provide annual national GHG inventories covering emissions and removals of direct GHGs from the Energy, Industrial processes, Solvents, Agriculture, LULUCF, and Waste sectors, and for all years from the base year or period to the most recent year. These Parties are required to submit information on their national inventories annually by 15 April.

NCs from developing countries provide information on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, measures to mitigate and to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change, and any other information that the Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention.

Developing country Parties are required to submit their first NC within three years of entering the Convention, and every four years thereafter.
BURs provide an update of the information presented in NCs, in particular on national GHG inventories, mitigation actions, constraints and gaps, including support needed and received.

The first BUR should be, consistent with the Party's capabilities or level of support provided, submitted by December 2014, and every two years thereafter. Least developed country Parties and small island developing States may submit BURs at their own discretion.
NAPAs provide a process for least developed countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities responding to their urgent and immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change.

The importance of reliable data

Accurate, consistent and internationally comparable data on GHG emissions is essential for the international community to take the most appropriate action to mitigate climate change, and ultimately to achieve the objective of the Convention. Communicating relevant information on the most effective ways to reduce emissions and adapt to the adverse effects of climate change also contributes towards global sustainable development.

Ensuring quality of reporting

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications and biennial update reports, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Each national report submitted by an Annex I Party is subject to an "in-depth" review conducted by an international team of experts and coordinated by the secretariat.

BURs for non-Annex I Parties undergo an international verification process through an international consultation and analysis.

Submission of reports

Parties submit their national reports to the UNFCCC secretariat in Bonn, Germany, which makes them publicly available. Following a request from the COP, the secretariat synthesizes the most important information from submitted national communications in separate reports for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties, and in turn submits these reports to the Subsidiary Bodies and the COP for consideration.

The UNFCCC secretariat also collects and makes publicly available the annual GHG inventory submissions of Annex I Parties. It also publishes its own reports summarizing the status and trends of GHG emissions in Annex I Parties.

All latest National Communications

Read the latest National Communication under the Convention

Annex I  -  Non-Annex I

Fifth National Communication