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Essential Background

The UNFCCC, which entered into force in 1994, provides an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. Since 1994, at each session of the Conference of the Parties, Parties have taken decisions on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). These decisions have laid down specific actions to be undertaken by Parties, the subsidiary bodies, the Expert Group on Technology Transfer, the Technology Executive Committee, the Climate Technology Centre and Network and the secretariat to promote the development and transfer of ESTs. Some milestones can be identified in the evolution of the issue of the development and transfer of ESTs over time.


 Milestones

1992 Agenda 211994 UNFCCC2001 Marrakesh Accords
The UN Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established Agenda 21 and the three Rio Conventions, including the UNFCCC. Chapter 34 of Agenda 21 focuses on the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), technology cooperation and capacity-building, which provided a basis for most of the early decisions on the development and transfer of technologies under the Convention. The UNFCCC, which entered into force in 1994, provides an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. The provisions of the Convention relevant to the development and transfer of technologies are contained in Article 4, paragraphs 1(c), 3, 5 and 7. The framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention, also referred to as the technology transfer framework, was adopted as part of the Marrakesh Accords (Decision 4/CP.7).
2007 Bali Roadmap2010 Cancun Agreements2012 Doha Gateway
Negotiations at COP 13 resulted in the adoption of the Bali Action Plan (Decision 1/CP.13), which established the AWG-LCA with a mandate to focus on key elements of long term cooperation, including technology transfer. As part of the Cancun Agreements a Technology Mechanism was established at COP 16 (Decision1/CP.16), comprising a Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and a Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). In Doha, UNEP, as the leader of the consortium of partner organizations, was elected as the host of the Climate Technology Centre. Parties also agreed on the constitution of the Advisory Board to the CTCN, thereby making the Technology Mechanism fully operational (Decision 14/CP.18).