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Essential Background

UNFCCC and climate technology development and transfer

The UNFCCC provides an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the climate change challenge. In 1992, countries agreed on the Convention text , which includes specific articles on technology. Following this agreement, countries have considered how to acclerate climate technology development and transfer. The key technology articles of the UNFCCC are:

Article 4.1 (c)Article 4.5
“All Parties … shall: (c) Promote and cooperate in the development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases…”“The developed country Parties … shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention…” 

UNFCCC milestones on technology

1992 The Rio Conference2010 Cancun Agreements
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in 1992 in Brazil, established Agenda 21 and the three Rio conventions, including the UNFCCC. Provisions of the UNFCCC text relevant to climate technology development and transfer are contained in Article 4, paragraphs 1(c), 3, 5 and 7.In Mexico, as part of the Cancun Agreements, countries established the Technology Mechanism, comprising of the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network.
2001 Marrakesh Accords2012 Doha Gateway
As part of the Marrakesh Accords, countries adopted the framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention, otherwise known as the technology transfer framework.In Doha, countries chose UNEP as the host of the Climate Technology Centre. They also agreed on the constitution of the CTCN's Advisory Board.
2007 Bali Roadmap2015 Paris Agreement
In Indonesia, countries adopted the Bali Action Plan, mandating an ad-hoc body to focus on key elements of long-term cooperation, including technology transfer. Countries also strengthened the technology transfer framework.In Paris, countries reached a historic agreement to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future. Article 10 of the agreement is devoted to climate technology development and transfer.