Towards Technology Transfer in the Transport Sector-an Analysis of Technology Need Assessments
Daniel Bongardt and Dominik Schmid, GTZ
At the request of Parties, the UNFCCC secretariat prepared a report that synthesizes information on technology needs for mitigation and adaptation to climate change contained in 70 technology needs assessments (TNAs) and 39 national communications submitted by non-Annex I Parties. The report highlights priority technology needs identified in various sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and facilitate adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change. It draws attention to specific barriers to technology transfer and suggests measures to address them. It also highlights various ways used to involve stakeholders in a consultative process to conduct TNAs, including the methodologies and criteria used to prioritize technology needs.
The sectors covered by Parties in their TNAs were chosen on the basis of their national circumstances. Consequently, the 70 Parties that conducted TNAs focused mainly on energy generation and use, agriculture and forestry, and transport in relation to mitigation of GHG emissions; and on agriculture and forestry, water management, and systematic observation and monitoring in relation to adaptation to climate change.
|Prioritized mitigation technologies
The most commonly identified technology needs for mitigation were renewable energy technologies, technologies for improved crop management, energy-efficient appliances, waste management technologies, forestry-related technologies and more clean and efficient vehicles.
|Prioritized adaptation technologies
The most commonly identified technology needs for adaptation were related to crop management, efficient water use, improving irrigation systems, early warning systems for forest fires, technologies for afforestation and reforestation, and technologies to protect against and accommodate rises in sea level.
Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Least developed countries
Small island developing States
Regional patterns in technology needs and priority sectors tend to follow the policy objectives of the national governments. The energy and transport sectors were addressed as priorities in the TNAs of all Parties from Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Food security is one of the main priorities for African Parties. Parties from Latin America and the Caribbean identified their technology needs mostly in the energy sector. Least developed countries assessed their main technology needs in the agriculture, land use, livestock and forestry sectors. Most of the small island developing States considered the energy sector to be of the highest priority for their technology needs.
The main barriers to technology transfer identified were economic and market barriers. The measures identified by Parties to address these barriers were, inter alia: national involvement to attract foreign investments; increased participation of the private sector in technology transfer; removal of subsidies and price distortions; improvement of collaborative research and development of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs); and increased public awareness.
Most Parties indicated that existing in-country capacity was insufficient to address the transfer of ESTs and many were able to identify in-country capacity-building needs in their TNA reports. Capacity-building needs vary by sector and by region.
More than two-thirds of the Parties that conducted TNAs also identified next steps in relation to: disseminating information and raising awareness; implementation policies, programmes and regulations; and technology implementation plans and project proposals.