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Synthesis of technology needs assessments

Developing country TNA reports provide information on technologies prioritized to enhance climate action. They also contain technology action plans (TAPs) for implementing these technologies. Finally, they inform on country experiences in undertaking TNAs and involving stakeholders in the process.

The following information comes from the third synthesis report on TNAs. This document synthesizes the TNAs of 31 developing countries undertaken between 2011 and 2013. It notes that almost all countries prepared detailed reports covering the full TNA process. They often provided separate reports for: (i) TNA process; (ii) barrier analysis and enabling framework; (iii) TAP; and (iv) project idea. Find out more. 

Deliverable I: TNA reports

In reporting on deliverable I, Parties firstly outlined the organization of their national TNA process and the involvement of stakeholders in this process. They then prioritized national sectors and technologies required to enhance national action on climate change.


General information

The third synthesis report on TNAs covered information contained in the TNA reports of 31 Parties that were submitted to UNEP Risoe Centre by 31 July 2013. The regional distribution of those Parties is as follows:   (a) Africa: 10 Parties;   (b) Asia-Pacific: 10 Parties;   (c) Eastern Europe: 3 Parties;   (d) Latin America and Caribbean: 8 Parties. Of these 31 Parties, 29 prepared TNA reports on mitigation and all of them prepared TNA reports on adaptation.

Stakeholders involvement

Almost all of the Parties reported that the coordination of the TNA process was carried out by a national ministry. All 31 Parties mentioned involving stakeholders in the TNA process, particularly through workshops and expert consultations.


National priorities

Most of the Parties stated their national development priorities as a starting point for the TNA process and as a basis for prioritizing sectors and technologies. In general, Parties categorized those priorities into environmental, social and economic categories.

Prioritized sectors for mitigation

For mitigation, almost all of the Parties prioritized the energy sector. The most prioritized subsectors within the energy sector were energy industries and transport.

Prioritized sectors for adaptation

For adaptation, the agriculture and water sectors were the most prioritized.

Prioritized technologies for mitigation

For mitigation, the majority of the technologies prioritized for the energy industries subsector were related to electricity generation.

Solar photovoltaic and biomass/biogas electricity generation technologies were the most prioritized technologies, followed by efficient lighting, waste to energy, wind turbines and hydropower.

Prioritized technologies for adaptation

For adaptation, the majority of the technologies prioritized for the agriculture sector were related to crop management.

Biotechnologies, including technologies related to crop improvement, new varieties and drought-resistant, salient-tolerant and short-maturing varieties, were the most prioritized technologies.

Deliverable II: Barriers and enablers

Following the prioritization of technologies, most of the Parties identified and analysed technology-specific barriers to the development and transfer of their prioritized technologies and identified possible enablers to overcome such barriers.

Barriers and enablers - mitigation technologies

For mitigation, the most commonly reported barriers to the development and transfer of the prioritized technologies were economic and financial, and technical barriers. Within the first barrier classification (economic and financial), most of the Parties identified inappropriate financial incentives and disincentives as the main barrier. In the technical barriers, many of the Parties identified system constraints and inadequate standards, codes and certification as the main barriers.

The most commonly mentioned enabler was the measure to provide or expand financial incentives for the implementation and use of the prioritized technology.


Main barriers and subsequent enablers - adaptation technologies

For adaptation, almost all of the Parties identified the following types of barriers to the development and transfer of the prioritized technologies: economic and financial; policy, legal and regulatory; institutional and organizational capacity; and technical. Within the first two barrier classifications, Parties identified the lack of or inadequate access to financial resources and an insufficient legal and regulatory framework as the most common barriers.

The most commonly mentioned enabler was the measure to increase the financial resources available for the technology, by introducing or increasing the allocation for the technology in the national budget or by identifying and creating financial schemes, funds, mechanisms or policies.

Deliverable III: TAP reports

Having identified enablers to address identified barriers, almost all Parties subsequently further elaborated those enablers in TAPs. A TAP is an action plan consisting of a group of measures to address identified barriers to the development and transfer of a prioritized technology.

Estimated budgets identified in the technology action plans for mitigation

For mitigation,the total accumulative estimated budget needed by Parties for their TAPs was USD 5.2 billion. While two Parties reported estimated budgets of greater than USD 1.5 billion, several other Parties reported total budgets that did not exceed USD 10 million.

Estimated budgets identified in the technology action plans for adaptation

For adaptation, the total estimated accumulative budget requirement of Parties for their TAPs was USD 2.4 billion. Similar to for mitigation, three Parties reported estimated budgets for adaptation of over USD 350 million, while for several other Parties the total budget did not exceed USD 10 million.
Deliverable IV: Project ideas

In addition to preparing TAPs, many of the Parties identified project ideas as the fourth deliverable of their TNAs. In the context of their TNAs, Parties envisaged project ideas as concrete actions for the implementation of their prioritized technologies.

Project ideas by sector

Most of the project ideas for mitigation were in the energy subsectors of energy industries and transport.

The majority of the project ideas for adaptation were in the agriculture and water sectors.

Project idea budgets

The estimated accumulative total budget required for more than 250 project ideas identified by Parties amounted to approximately USD 24.7 billion. However, the estimated national budget differed significantly between different Parties.