This section summarizes challenges to integration and options to overcome them.

1. Coordination and coherence

• Develop institutional structures to clarify roles and responsibilities among actors, including commitment from government;

• Collaborate with non-state actors and intensify engagement with the private sector to capitalize on existing capacity and activities and strengthen public-private partnerships;

• Promote and develop linkages between the three post-2015 global agendas—Paris Agreement, SDGs and Sendai Framework—and build structures for coordination and coherence, such as through NAPs and NDCs;

• Integrate gender equality to achieve optimal social and economic benefits from mitigation and adaptation actions.

For example, despite the barriers to uptake of low-emission technologies in cities22 and cities’ limits in terms of geographical scope and jurisdiction, municipalities can play a key role in coordinating incentives, stakeholders,education (especially for women and girls) and training on policy and technology solutions23 as well as through cross-city partnerships (highlighted in section 4 below).

2. Data and information

• Invest in broader, reliable and more frequent data collection, including for socioeconomic information and information needed for climate modelling;

• Support development of climate services, products and tools to communicate climate information;

• Build capacity to understand climate change and climate data, including through professional training and education.

For example, the African Center of Meteorological Application for Development began the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa programme in 2010, which produces information for policymakers, including monthly policy briefs and periodic press releases. These materials address the uncertainty of the climate projections in user-friendly terms and are designed to aid planning.24

3. Financial and technical support

• Enable sufficient up-front finance to cover transaction and monitoring costs and long implementation timeframes;

• Develop proposals to fund activities for climate change action, sustainable development and disaster risk reduction, and submit proposals to climate and non-climate related funders;

• Continue to explore innovative funding mechanisms, both internationally and nationally, and work to leverage private finance flows;

• Acquire support, including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN):

o to plan and build capacity through the NAPs;

o to assess options for financial and technical support at the subnational level.

For example, the GCF supports developing countries in the formulation of NAPs with up to USD 3 million through its readiness programme. The GEF, GCF and CTCN, as well as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, International Renewable Energy Agency, German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) and European Commission all provide technical and/or financial support for action at the urban level.25

4. Low-emission policies and technology solutions

• Provide incentives, create a clear business case for investment, and undertake educational and behavioral change campaigns;

• Create enabling environments for stakeholders to come together to develop innovative solutions, to ensure good practices can be institutionalized and technical materials can be shared, and to scale-up existing initiatives;

• Provide adequate governance through strengthened institutional arrangements and legal and regulatory frameworks;

• Reduce the complexity of methods for measurement, reporting and verification in the AFOLU sector and build capacity to implement these methods.

For example, in Kenya, national policies support climate mitigation, including through agroforestry activities that come with clear co-benefits. Kenya is in the process of aligning policies with the country’s Constitution. Agroforestry is resulting in carbon sequestration and has contributed to reduced forest degradation from fuelwood extraction. Planted rather than natural forests are providing fuelwood, timber and other tree products. Agroforestry, including combining tree cultivation with annual crops, is improving soil health, restoring soil integrity and producing feed for livestock.

22 See table 2 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
23 See Boxes 2 and 14 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
24 See Box 11 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
25 See boxes 12-14 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
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