Land-use related mitigation benefits
Land use related mitigation benefits and co-benefits of policies, practices and actions for enhancing mitigation ambition and options for supporting their implementation. Technical paper by the secretariat.
Climate change mitigation measures for the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors can promote innovation and increase efficiency in agriculture and in the growing and cultivation of trees. This efficiency can free land for carbon sequestration and/or bioenergy production.
Parties can assess mitigation potential in the context of their efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), recognized in Article 5 of the Paris Agreement. Parties can also make use of the supplement on wetlands to the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory guidelines published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
The AFOLU sector can substantially contribute to mitigation of GHG emissions in two main ways, which are often linked: resource use and production efficiency and GHG emissions and removals. Furthermore, mitigation measures can bring co-benefits, including sustainable development and adaptation benefits.
Partnerships are already accelerating adoption of low-emission policies and technologies, through support to countries, farmers, livestock owners, foresters and other land users and stakeholders. For example, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research runs its Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security and Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture.
The agriculture, forestry and other land use sector can contribute substantially to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and deliver co-benefits
Public-private partnerships are at an early stage, but some examples were cited in the TEM. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development2(WBCSD) has developed the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard to support SDG Target 12.3. The Tropical Forest Alliance 2020 and International Indigenous Peoples Forum on Climate Change were also cited.3
Organizations are supporting integrated initiatives. The WBCSD and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, for example, support climate-smart agriculture programmes. Many countries are undertaking agricultural activities with climate and sustainable development benefits. Botswana, Brazil, Japan, Kenya and New Zealand were cited in the TEM.4
As well, international initiatives, especially related to REDD+, are funding progress and laying the foundation for accelerated mitigation actions in the AFOLU sector.
The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries is supporting nationally led REDD+ initiatives in 64 countries, and is a major platform for knowledge sharing. The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility5 supports 47 countries with over USD 1.1 billion in total committed funds.
Urban-environment related mitigation benefits
Urban environment related mitigation benefits and co-benefits of policies, practices and actions for enhancing mitigation ambition and options for supporting their implementation. Technical paper by the secretariat.
An increasing number of cities are preparing and implementing climate action plans and reports and are using global platforms to communicate their climate actions. Platforms include the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy,6 ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability,7 C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group8 and the Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance.9
Innovative policies and technology solutions can unlock mitigation potential and deliver multiple sustainable development co-benefits. In urban environments, significant mitigation can be achieved in the building and transportation sectors, for example through use of renewable energy, effective waste management and optimizing urban planning.
Improved data and information sharing would enable more cities to choose the most cost-effective mitigation strategies, evidence-based and locally appropriate. It could accelerate, with planning and collaboration, the development and implementation of mitigation actions. Cities can share knowledge, know-how and experience to replicate initiatives or deploy urban services that result in emission reductions and enhance livability of cities.
Integration is supported by effective policies. For example, Indonesia introduced a policy to tackle both energyrelated and refrigerant-related emissions from refrigeration and air-conditioning in buildings in urban areas.10 Bus rapid transport, such as in China, is an example of effective policy in the transport sector.11 The city of Oslo in Norway has introduced a waste management system that reuses 2 per cent of its municipal waste, recycles 39 percent and converts to energy 57 per cent. Only the remaining 2 per cent of municipal waste goes into landfill.12
Local authorities can support—through education, training and leadership—adoption of energy codes, standards, certification and labelling to reduce emissions from buildings. For example, 60 countries have introduced energy codes and standards. Introducing this globally would reduce global energy use by 6 per cent.
The co-benefits from pursuing climate change mitigation provide additional motivation for undertaking even more ambitious actions and strategies, and have proven successful in generating local support.13
Integrating adaptation, sustainable development and disaster risk reduction
Opportunities and options for integrating climate change adaptation with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Technical paper by the secretariat.
Working on the three global agendas collaboratively—Paris Agreement, SDGs and Sendai Framework—will result in sharing of data and information between relevant actors, encourage policy learning related to best practices and common issues, and allow reallocation of resources from operations and maintenance to innovation and problem solving. Reduced vulnerability and enhanced resilience should be a key result.
Integrating adaptation with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sendai Framework
Integration requires that various actors work together to deliver sought after outcomes and eliminate redundancies or gaps in services. However, the TEMs also heard that partial integration is preferred over full policy integration as the global community works to achieve the three global agendas. Partial integration would allow each global agenda to maintain its autonomy and focus, while each would benefit from enhanced coherence and more efficient use of limited resources.
While there are few instances of explicit links between the three agendas to date, Parties are beginning to recognize connections and develop integrated policy approaches, including through nationally determined contributions(NDCs) under the Paris Agreement and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs).14
Resilience and building resilient ecosystems are unifying concepts that bring together adaptation, sustainable development and disaster risk management, and ultimately the three global agendas. For example, the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency15 has taken steps to strengthen regional-, national- and community-level capacity for the management and coordinated response to natural and technological hazards, including the effects of climate change.16 Ecosystem-based planning approaches in Mexico are being undertaken through the project Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Wetlands of the Gulf of Mexico, and in Peru through the Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation Programme.17
Coordination can help ensure complementarity, avoid duplication and capitalize on the various strengths of state- and non-state actors across sectors and scales, from local to international levels. The annual African Learning Forum on Adaptation18 brings stakeholders together to facilitate knowledge sharing related to adaptation in Africa. The Adaptation Futures conference in 2016 brought together a large representation of non-state actors, partly due to the conference’s focus on practices and solutions. Researchers from the Stockholm Environment Institute supported planning efforts for the Senegal's NAP, by clarifying the role international rice prices play in food security in the country.19
People and communities play a central role in each of the three global agendas. Supporting communities can help encourage policy integration based on actions identified at the community level. For example, the Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund Small Grant Program allows communities to devise climate actions based on local needs and goals.20
The TEMs heard that NAPs can be a launch pad for harmonized, strategic planning.21 NAPs can support integrated approaches for adaptation, development, and risk reduction. For example, Pacific countries’ joint national action plans have been supported through NAPs, and most recently through the NAP-SDG iFrame methodology developed by the Least Developed Countries Expert Group.2 http://www.wbcsd.org/
3 See paragraphs 44-46 in FCCC/TP/2017/9.
4 See Boxes 1 and 2 in FCCC/TP/2017/9.
10 See Box 2 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
11 See Box 3 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
12 See Box 5 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
13 For lists of policies and measures and associated co-benefits see Boxes 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in FCCC/TP/2017/2.
14 With respect to Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Climate Change Agreement, see Box 1 for links to Sustainable Development Goals and Box 2 for links to Sendai Framework, and with respect to National Adaptation Plans, see Box 3, in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
16 See Box 4 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
17 See Box 5 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
18 See Box 6 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
19 See Box 7 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
20 See Box 8 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.
21 See Box 1 in FCCC/TP/2017/3.