1. LACK OF CO-ORDINATION AND COHERENCE
• Involve women and vulnerable communities in adaptation planning in an inclusive participatory approach.
• Accompany technology transfer with capacity building and tailoring to local context.
• Develop inclusive business models to protect livelihood of vulnerable communities.
• Collaborate to design innovative products, processes and business models to increase energy and material efficiency and improve resilience.
• Increase security of feedstock through cleaner waste streams including a good collection system.
• Look for synergies and symbiosis across sectors to provide incentives to implement re-use, recycling or waste-toenergy.
For example, a UNIDO industrial waste-to-energy initiative in Lao PDR includes technology demonstration based on technologies that are common in Thailand and Vietnam.13 The demonstrations are set up to involve local stakeholders and to highlight the economic, social and environmental co-benefits. This South-South co-operation helps ensure suitability of the technology to the country context.
2. POLICY FRAMEWORKS NOT OPTIMIZED
• Introduce a mix of policy instruments to support circular economy strategies and waste-to-energy technologies and screen all policies to ensure there are no disincentives.
• Integrate national and local approaches to adaptation.
• Plan for the impact on the work force of new business models and enable capacity building and retraining.
• Encourage investment in research and development for innovative solutions.
• Create demand side efficiency to change consumption patterns.
For example, in many countries waste pickers rely on existing disposal practices for their income. Recognizing this at an early stage and investing in capacity building to enable them to work on upstream recycling will reduce potentially negative social impacts.14
3. INFORMATION AND DATA TOO LIMITED OR NOT REACHING THE RIGHT ACTORS
• Increase communication on the urgency of adaptation and on the solutions available.
• Disseminate case study based learning and knowledge. reduction, and submit proposals to climate and non-climate related funders;
• Improve data on waste quantities and characterization.
• Translate scientific information to make it actionable
For example, the Climate Technology Center and Network (CTCN) is working with Jakarta to implement a hydrodynamic model. This hydrodynamic model will help Jakarta to evaluate different engineering interventions to reduce flood risk and protect food and water supply during natural disasters. At the same time, they are holding workshops that help local inhabitants to understand how the model functions.15
4. FINANCE NOT AVAILABLE OR NOT ACCESSIBLE
• Develop more financing instruments that look to long-term rather than short-term gains.
• Invest in pilot and demonstration projects.
• Use public funding to leverage private sector financing.
• Develop innovative financing for small scale decentralized investments.
• Raise awareness in the financial sector on the risks and opportunities of climate change and of the circular economy.
For example, the Biovalor project in Uruguay responds to the need for proper treatment of waste from slaughterhouses and feedlots by supporting investments in anaerobic digestion. A condition of the project is that the beneficiaries must provide co-financing.1613Brahmanand Mohanty, UNIDO, 2018, available at https://unfccc.int/playground-20/level-2/level-3/tems-m-event-2018
14FCCC/TP/2018/2 Page 35.
16FCCC/TP/2018/2 Text box 2, page 10