Systematic observation of the climate system - atmosphere, land and ocean - is a key prerequisite for advancing scientific knowledge on climate change and informing decision making on mitigation and adaptation
The Convention calls on Parties to promote and cooperate in research, systematic observation and the development of data archives, including through exchange of information; to support programmes, networks and organizations; and improve the capacities of developing countries (Articles 4.1(g) and 5).
The Paris Agreement identifies the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge. This requires strengthening of knowledge on climate, including systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision-making.
Implementation of systematic observation is supported through the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), the Joint Working Group on Climate (WG Climate) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS), and others. These organizations provide a range of important inputs to the process, including documents, as requested by SBSTA, and at the Earth Information Day and other relevant events.
Parties provide detailed technical reports on the status of their national systematic observation via their National Communications, in line with the guidelines in decision 11/CP.13, and in consideration of the latest GCOS Implementation Plan.