Scientific research is required to understand climate change - the historical background, current status, impacts and future predictions, the effects of human activities and the actions required at global, regional and local levels for mitigation and adaptation.

The Convention calls on Parties to promote and cooperate in research, systematic observation and the development of data archives, including through exchange of information; to support programmes, networks and organizations; and improve the capacities of developing countries (Articles 4.1(g,h) and 5).

The Paris Agreement identifies the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge. 

Implementation of research under the Convention and Paris Agreement is supported through cooperation with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), which coordinates the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),  and others. The secretariat facilitates dialogue and communication on the research needs and priorities expressed by Parties to the scientific community and on the most recent and relevant information from the scientific community to Parties, including through the research dialogue.                        

The IPCC has a well established cooperation role, including providing assessment reports, special reports, methodology reports and technical papers to support the Convention process and wider global community.

Parties report on their national and cooperative research activities and their contributions to climate science, as well as emerging research needs and priorities, in their national communications.