The Convention calls on Parties to promote and cooperate in research, systematic observation and the development of data archives, including through exchange of information; to support programmes, networks and organizations; and improve the capacities of developing countries (Articles 4.1(g,h) and 5).

The Paris Agreement identifies the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge. Furthermore, action under the agreement should be based on the best available science (Articles 4, 7 and 14). The need to enhance and strengthen research, climate services and knowledge sharing is specifically recognised in Article 7.

Parties report on research and systematic observation via their National Communications.

Research is usually considered by the SBSTA at the first sessional period of the year (as mandated in FCCC/SBSTA/2012/5, paragraph 46).