Response Measures Models - MARKAL


Name and contact of the organization


Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme,
Via Colli Farnesina 144,
I- 00194 Roma,

Tel:  ++39 335 537 7675 (mobile)
Email:  Gian Carlo Tosato (Project Head and Operating Agent),

Description of model

The MARKAL family of energy models is a set of generic models whose scope depend on the data used (can be regional, national or international over a period of 40 to 50 years).  The models include detailed cost and technology information making them suitable for analysis of different policy and technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The models are mainly used for: 1) identifying least-cost energy systems; 2) exploring cost-effective responses to emission control policies; 3) evaluating new technologies for R&D purposes; 4) forecasting inventories of greenhouse  gas emissions; and 5) estimating the value of regional cooperation in energy policy.

Particular relevance

MARKAL is highly relevant to investigating the development of new environmentally-friendly technologies in a given region and looking at the conditions for the adoption of these technologies.  The model can also be used to analyse energy-efficiency issues.


38 countries and regions, including the  EU27, USA, China and Japan

Model applications

Costs and uncertainties of long-term reduction in UK carbon emissions - MARKAL is used to run an extensive range of UK 60% CO2 abatement scenarios and sensitivity analysis runs for analytical insights to underpin the 2007 Energy White Paper.

MARKAL Application for China - Analysis of China's energy consumption using the MARKAL model including future patterns of consumption.

Biomass for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction - Task 8: Optimal emission reduction strategies for Western Europe - The paper explores the optimal use of biomass in Western Europe for greenhouse gas emission mitigation using the MARKAL model.

Technology Learning and the Role of  Renewable Energy in Reducing Carbon Emissions - This study provides an analysis of the effects of technology and learning in the development of new energy technologies using MARKAL.

Organization's main area of research

 Multi-country energy/economy/environment/engineering (4E).

Other projects / reseach

Publications (