Pre-2020 Implementation and Ambition
The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. To that end, greenhouse gas concentrations must be stabilized in the atmosphere. While developed countries need to take the lead, it is clear that the climate will benefit from actions around the world. The provision of financial, technological and capacity-building support to developing countries, to support them to enhance their national action, will play a key role in this regard.
Highlighting Pre-2020 Efforts
COP 23 noted that all Parties share the view that pre-2020 implementation and ambition are of utmost importance. It also emphasized that enhanced pre-2020 ambition can lay a solid foundation for enhanced post-2020 ambition. In this context, the COP decided to convene stocktakes on pre-2020 implementation and ambition at its 24th (2018) and 25th (2019) sessions. The COP also invited Parties to submit via the submission portal, by 1 May 2018, additional information on progress in implementing decision 1/CP.21, section IV: enhanced action prior to 2020
Emission Reductions by Developed Countries
In 2009 and 2010, developed countries committed to implementing quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020.
It was agreed that these countries will increase the regular reporting of progress towards these targets. They would do this by continuing to submit detailed annual inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and reporting on the progress towards achieving their emission reduction targets every two years.
In 2012, Parties to the Kyoto Protocol adopted an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, for second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2013-2020. This amendment is known as the Doha Amendment and includes quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol for developed countries which are Parties to the Protocol. Find out more about the Doha Amendment, including information on Parties that have deposited their instruments of ratification, here.
Nationally Appropriate Emission Reductions by Developing Countries
From 2009, the climate change negotiations opened up an unprecedented opportunity for all developing countries to join global efforts to contribute towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Developing countries agreed to craft Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) that are in line with their national development objectives. Through NAMAs, developing countries aim to reduce their emissions below business as usual by 2020.
Technical Examination Process
The COP, by decision 1/CP.17, resolved to strengthen, in the period 2016-2020, the existing technical examination process on mitigation. The technical examination process explores high-potential mitigation policies, practices and technologies with significant sustainable development co-benefits that could increase the mitigation ambition of pre-2020 climate action.