According to the FAO (2005), deforestation, mainly conversion of forests to agricultural land, continues at an alarming rate of approximately 13 million hectares per year (for the period 1990-2005). Deforestation results in immediate release of the carbon originally stored in the trees as CO2 emissions (with small amounts of CO and CH4), particularly if the trees are burned and the slower release of emissions from the decay of organic matter. The IPCC WGIII (2007) estimated emissions from deforestation in the 1990s to be at 5.8 GtCO2/yr. The IPCC also notes that reducing and/or preventing deforestation is the mitigation option with the largest and most immediate carbon stock impact in the short term per hectare and per year globally as the release of carbon as emissions into the atmosphere is prevented.
The agenda item on Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries and approaches to stimulate action was first introduced into the COP agenda at its eleventh session in Montreal (December 2005). The governments of Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica, supported by 8 other Parties, through their submission FCCC/CP/2005/MISC.1, requested for this issue to be taken up on the agenda. This proposal received wide support from Parties and there was general agreement on the importance of the issue in the context of climate change mitigation, particularly in light of the large contribution of emissions from deforestation in developing countries to global greenhouse gas emissions. The COP established a contact group on this item which drafted conclusions on initiating a process to address the issue of reducing emissions from deforestation.
Methodological Guidance (SBSTA)
Since its twenty-fourth session in May 2006 the SBSTA has continued its consideration of the methodological guidance for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.
COP Work Programme on REDD Finance
The Conference of the Parties (COP), at its eighteenth session, decided to undertake a work programme on results-based finance in 2013 to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70.
COP 19 concluded the work programme and adopted decision 9/CP.19, entitled "Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70".
Expert Meeting on the Information Hub for REDD-plus results and payments
An expert meeting on matters relating to the information hub on the results of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 20, and corresponding results-based payments was held on 2-3 September 2014 in Bonn, Germany.
Information Hub for REDD-plus results-based actions and payments
SBI 41 took note of the information contained in the report on the expert meeting on matters relating to the information hub (contained in FCCC/SBI/2014/INF.13) and requested the secretariat to establish the information hub.
COP 20 agreed to name the information hub as the Lima Information Hub for REDD-plus.
Coordination of Support (SBSTA/SBI)
The COP in its decision 1/CP.18, paragraphs 34 38, requested the SBSTA and the SBI, at their thirty-eighth sessions, to jointly initiate a process with the aim of addressing the following matters:
COP 19 concluded consideration of this joint work and adopted decision 10/CP.19, entitled Coordination of support for the implementation of activities in relation to mitigation actions in the forest sector by developing countries, including institutional arrangement.
REDD Web Platform
The COP has invited Parties, relevant organizations and stakeholders to support ongoing efforts, capacity building, demonstration activities and mobilization of resources relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries and to share the outcomes of these efforts with the SBSTA by providing corresponding information to the secretariat. In decision 2/CP.13 the COP also requested the secretariat to develop a web platform where this information will be made available. The REDD Web Platform can be accessed through the following link:
REDD Web Platform
The COP through its decisions agreed to make available on this platform information and reports relating to REDD-plus implementation, including submissions from Parties on proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels.
The REDD interactive discussion forum was developed following a request from SBSTA 32 to enhance sharing of information, experiences and lessons learned on the use of the IPCC guidance and guidelines. All experts interested to participate in such discussions are welcome to register through the following link:
REDD Discussion Forum