At COP 13, through the Bali Action Plan, Parties agreed on the principle of applying measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) for developing country Parties, which laid the foundation for the subsequent elaboration of the existing comprehensive MRV framework for developing country Parties. MRV occurs at the international level, but can also be voluntary at the national level.

Measurement (M) for non-Annex I Parties applies both to efforts to address climate change and to the impacts of these efforts. It occurs at the national level and refers to GHG emissions, mitigation actions and their effects, and the support needed and received;

Reporting (R) for non-Annex I Parties is implemented through the national communications and BURs, where Parties report on their actions to address climate change in their national communications;

Verification (V) is addressed at the international level, through the ICA of BURs; It can also occur at the national level, but is voluntary.

The secretariat released new handbook on measurement, reporting, and verification for developing countries.
To access the handbook, click  here (3359 kB)


National Reports from non-Annex Parties

Submitted NCs

Submitted BURs

Reporting for developing countries is implemented through national communications (NCs) and biennial update reports (BURs). Developing country Parties are required to submit their first NC within three years of entering the Convention, and every four years thereafter.

The first BUR should be, consistent with the Party's capabilities or level of support provided, submitted by December 2014, and every two years thereafter. Least developed country Parties and small island developing States may submit BURs at their own discretion.

Consideration of Reports

Compilation and Synthesis Reports

International Consultation and Analysis

Verification of reports is addressed at the international level through the process of international consultation and analysis of BURs. This is to increase the transparency of mitigation actions and their effects as well as support needed and received.

Information contained in initial NCs submitted by non-Annex I Parties up to April 1, 2005 is compiled and synthesized into one comprehensive document. The most recent is the sixth Compilation and Synthesis report.

Financial and Technical Support

Financial and technical assistance are essential to helping developing countries prepare their NCs and BURS.

Some of the key actors involved in assisting developing countries with their national reports include the secretariat, the Global Environment Fund (GEF), Global Support Programme for national communications and biennial update reports (UNEP/UNDP), the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE), and Annex I Parties.

Tools and Training Materials

National communications

Biennial update reports

International Consultation and Analysis

The secretariat, the IPCC, the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE), and related external sources provide

tools, materials, and training, including UNFCCC-CASTT, to facilitate measuring, reporting, and verification in developing countries in accordance with the guidelines to the Convention. 

The Conference of the Parties (COP), at its twenty-first session held in Paris in 2015, established a Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) in order to build institutional and technical capacity, both pre-and post-2020. Upon request of the COP, the GEF made arrangements to support the establishment and operation of the CBIT. Further information is accessible at the GEF website

Contact and Feedback  

For information on the MRV process, please contact tisu@unfccc.int