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Status of Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol
 


The Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. In accordance with Article 24, it was open for signature from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 at United Nations Headquarters, New York. By that date the Protocol had received 84 signatures.

Pursuant to Article 22, the Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by Parties to the UNFCCC. Parties to the UNFCCC that have not signed the Protocol may accede to it at any time.

The Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 in accordance with Article 23, that is the ninetieth day after the date on which not less than 55 Parties to the UNFCCC, incorporating Parties included in Annex I which accounted in total for at least 55 % of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the Parties included in Annex I, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Currently, there are 192 Parties (191 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC.

The list below contains the latest information concerning dates of signature and receipt of instruments of ratification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as Depositary of the Kyoto Protocol. The dates in the third column are those of the receipt of the instrument of ratification, acceptance (A), approval (AA) or accession (a). (For an explanation of these legal terms, visit the United Nations Treaty Collection Glossary of terms relating to Treaty actions).



Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

 

Kyoto, 11 December 1997

Entry into force: 16 February 2005, in accordance with article 25 (1) in accordance with article 25 (3) which reads as follows: "For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 above for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.".
 
Registration: 16 February 2005, No. 30822.

Status: Signatories: 83. Parties: 192

Note: The Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“the Convention”), held at Kyoto (Japan) from 1 to 11 December 1997. The Protocol shall be open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to the Convention at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 in accordance with its article 24 (1).


Participant Signature Ratification
Acceptance (A)
Accession (a)
Approval (AA)
Entry into force
 AFGHANISTAN

25 March 2013 a

23 June 2013
ALBANIA
  1 Apr 2005 a 30 Jun 2005
ALGERIA
16 Feb 2005 a 17 May 2005
ANGOLA
  8 May 2007 a   6 Aug 2007
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA 16 Mar 1998   3 Nov 1998 16 Feb 2005
ARGENTINA 16 Mar 1998 28 Sep 2001 16 Feb 2005
ARMENIA
25 Apr 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
AUSTRALIA* 29 Apr 1998 12 Dec 2007 11 Mar 2008
AUSTRIA* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
AZERBAIJAN
28 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005
BAHAMAS
  9 Apr 1999 a 16 Feb 2005
BAHRAIN
31 Jan 2006 a   1 May 2006
BANGLADESH
22 Oct 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
BARBADOS
  7 Aug 2000 a 16 Feb 2005
BELARUS*
26 Aug 2005 a 24 Nov 2005
BELGIUM* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
BELIZE
26 Sep 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
BENIN
25 Feb 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
BHUTAN
26 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
BOLIVIA 9 Jul 1998 30 Nov 1999 16 Feb 2005
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
16 Apr 2007 a 15 Jul 2007
BOTSWANA
  8 Aug 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
BRAZIL 29 Apr 1998 23 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
20 Aug 2009 a 18 Nov 2009
BULGARIA* 18 Sep 1998 15 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005
BURKINA FASO
31 Mar 2005 a 29 Jun 2005
BURUNDI
18 Oct 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
CABO VERDE   10 Feb 2006 a 11 May 2006 
CAMBODIA
22 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
CAMEROON
28 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
CANADA* [29 Apr 1998] [17 Dec 2002]

16 Feb 2005

[15 Dec 2012 w]

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
18 Mar 2008 a 16 Jun 2008
CHAD
18 Aug 2009 a 17 Nov 2009
CHILE 17 Jun 1998 26 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005
CHINA 29 May 1998 30 Aug 2002 AA (2) 16 Feb 2005
COLOMBIA
30 Nov 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
COMOROS
10 Apr 2008 a   9 Jul 2008
CONGO
12 Feb 2007 a 13 May 2007
COOK ISLANDS 16 Sep 1998 27 Aug 2001 16 Feb 2005
COSTA RICA 27 Apr 1998   9 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005
COTE D'IVOIRE
23 Apr 2007 a 22 Jul 2007
CROATIA* 11 Mar 1999 30 May 2007 28 Aug 2007
CUBA 15 Mar 1999 30 Apr 2002 16 Feb 2005
CYPRUS
16 Jul 1999 a 16 Feb 2005
CZECH REPUBLIC* 23 Nov 1998 15 Nov 2001 AA 16 Feb 2005
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA
27 Apr 2005 a 26 Jul 2005
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
23 Mar 2005 a 21 Jun 2005
DENMARK* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 (3) 16 Feb 2005
DJIBOUTI
12 Mar 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
DOMINICA
25 Jan 2005 a 25 Apr 2005
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
12 Feb 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
ECUADOR 15 Jan 1999 13 Jan 2000 16 Feb 2005
EGYPT 15 Mar 1999 12 Jan 2005 12 Apr 2005
EL SALVADOR 8 Jun 1998 30 Nov 1998 16 Feb 2005
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
16 Aug 2000 a 16 Feb 2005
ERITREA
28 Jul 2005 a 26 Oct 2005
ESTONIA* 3 Dec 1998 14 Oct 2002 16 Feb 2005
ETHIOPIA
14 Apr 2005 a 13 Jul 2005
EUROPEAN UNION* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AA 16 Feb 2005
FIJI 17 Sep 1998          17 Sep 1998 16 Feb 2005
FINLAND* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
FRANCE* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AA 16 Feb 2005
GABON
12 Dec 2006 a 12 Mar 2007
GAMBIA
  1 Jun 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
GEORGIA
16 Jun 1999 a 16 Feb 2005
GERMANY* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
GHANA
30 May 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
GREECE* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
GRENADA
  6 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
GUATEMALA 10 Jul 1998   5 Oct 1999 16 Feb 2005
GUINEA
  7 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005
GUINEA-BISSAU
18 Nov 2005 a 16 Feb 2005
GUYANA
  5 Aug 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
HAITI
  6 Jul 2005 a   4 Oct 2005
HONDURAS 25 Feb 1999 19 Jul 2000 16 Feb 2005
HUNGARY*
21 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
ICELAND*
23 May 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
INDIA
26 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
INDONESIA 13 Jul 1998   3 Dec 2004   3 Mar 2005
IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)
22 Aug 2005 a 20 Dec 2005
IRAQ
28 Jul 2009 a 26 Oct 2009
IRELAND* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
ISRAEL 16 Dec 1998 15 Mar 2004 16 Feb 2005
ITALY* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
JAMAICA
28 Jun 1999 a 16 Feb 2005
JAPAN* 28 Apr 1998   4 Jun 2002 A 16 Feb 2005
JORDAN
17 Jan 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
KAZAKHSTAN** 12 Mar 1999 19 Jun 2009 17 Sep 2009
KENYA
25 Feb 2005 a 26 May 2005
KIRIBATI
  7 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005
KUWAIT
11 Mar 2005 a   9 Jun 2005
KYRGYZSTAN
13 May 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
  6 Feb 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
LATVIA* 14 Dec 1998   5 Jul 2002 16 Feb 2005
LEBANON
13 Nov 2006 a 11 Feb 2007
LESOTHO
  6 Sep 2000 a 16 Feb 2005
LIBERIA
  5 Nov 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
LIBYA
24 Aug 2006 a 22 Nov 2006
LIECHTENSTEIN* 29 Jun 1998   3 Dec 2004   3 Mar 2005
LITHUANIA* 21 Sep 1998   3 Jan 2003 16 Feb 2005
LUXEMBOURG* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
MADAGASCAR
24 Sep 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
MALAWI
26 Oct 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
MALAYSIA 12 Mar 1999   4 Sep 2002 16 Feb 2005
MALDIVES 16 Mar 1998 30 Dec 1998 16 Feb 2005
MALI 27 Jan 1999 28 Mar 2002 16 Feb 2005
MALTA* 17 Apr 1998 11 Nov 2001 16 Feb 2005
MARSHALL ISLANDS 17 Mar 1998 11 Aug 2003 16 Feb 2005
MAURITANIA
22 Jul 2005 a 20 Oct 2005
MAURITIUS
  9 May 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
MEXICO   9 Jun 1998   7 Sep 2000 16 Feb 2005
MICRONESIA (FEDERATED STATES OF) 17 Mar 1998 21 Jun 1999 16 Feb 2005
MONACO* 29 Apr 1998 27 Feb 2006 28 May 2006
MONGOLIA
15 Dec 1999 a 16 Feb 2005
MONTENEGRO
  4 Jun 2007 a   2 Sep 2007
MOROCCO
25 Jan 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
MOZAMBIQUE
18 Jan 2005 a 18 Apr 2005
MYANMAR
13 Aug 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
NAMIBIA
  4 Sep 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
NAURU
16 Aug 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
NEPAL
16 Sep 2005 a 15 Dec 2005
NETHERLANDS* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 A (4) 16 Feb 2005
NEW ZEALAND* 22 May 1998 19 Dec 2002 (5) 16 Feb 2005
NICARAGUA   7 Jul 1998 18 Nov 1999 16 Feb 2005
NIGER 23 Oct 1998 30 Sep 2004 16 Feb 2005
NIGERIA
10 Dec 2004 a 10 Mar 2005
NIUE   8 Dec 1998   6 May 1999 16 Feb 2005
NORWAY* 29 Apr 1998 30 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
OMAN
19 Jan 2005 a 19 Apr 2005
PAKISTAN
11 Jan 2005 a 11 Apr 2005
PALAU
10 Dec 1999 a 16 Feb 2005
PANAMA   8 Jun 1998   5 Mar 1999 16 Feb 2005
PAPUA NEW GUINEA   2 Mar 1999 28 Mar 2002 16 Feb 2005
PARAGUAY 25 Aug 1998 27 Aug 1999 16 Feb 2005
PERU 13 Nov 1998 12 Sep 2002 16 Feb 2005
PHILIPPINES 15 Apr 1998 20 Nov 2003 16 Feb 2005
POLAND* 15 Jul 1998 13 Dec 2002 16 Feb 2005
PORTUGAL* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AA 16 Feb 2005
QATAR
11 Jan 2005 a 11 Apr 2005
REPUBLIC OF KOREA 25 Sep 1998   8 Nov 2002 16 Feb 2005
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
22 Apr 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
ROMANIA*   5 Jan 1999 19 Mar 2001 16 Feb 2005
RUSSIAN FEDERATION* 11 Mar 1999 18 Nov 2004 16 Feb 2005
RWANDA
22 Jul 2004 a 16 Feb 2005
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS
  8 Apr 2008 a   7 Jul 2008
SAINT LUCIA 16 Mar 1998 20 Aug 2003 16 Feb 2005
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES 19 Mar 1998
31 Dec 2004 31 Mar 2005
SAMOA 16 Mar 1998 27 Nov 2000 16 Feb 2005
SAN MARINO
28 April 2010
27 Jul
2010
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
25 Apr 2008 a 24 Jul 2008
SAUDI ARABIA
31 Jan 2005 a   1 May 2005
SENEGAL
20 Jul 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
SERBIA
19 Oct 2007 a 17 Jan 2008
SEYCHELLES 20 Mar 1998 22 Jul 2002 16 Feb 2005
SIERRA LEONE
10 Nov 2006 a 8 Feb 2007
SINGAPORE
12 Apr 2006 a 11 Jul 2006
SLOVAKIA* 26 Feb 1999 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
SLOVENIA* 21 Oct 1998   2 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005
SOLOMON ISLANDS 29 Sep 1998 13 Mar 2003 16 Feb 2005
SOMALIA
26 July 2010
24 Oct
2010
SOUTH AFRICA
31 Jul 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
SPAIN* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
SRI LANKA
  3 Sep 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
SUDAN
  2 Nov 2004 a 16 Feb 2005
SURINAME
25 Sep 2006 a 24 Dec 2006
SWAZILAND
13 Jan 2006 a 13 Apr 2006
SWEDEN* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 16 Feb 2005
SWITZERLAND* 16 Mar 1998   9 Jul 2003 16 Feb 2005
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC
27 Jan 2006 a 27 Apr 2006
TAJIKISTAN
29 Dec 2008 a 29 Mar 2009
THAILAND   2 Feb 1999 28 Aug 2002 16 Feb 2005
THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
18 Nov 2004 a 16 Feb 2005
TIMOR-LESTE
14 Oct 2008 a 12 Jan 2009
TOGO
  2 Jul 2004 a 16 Feb 2005
TONGA
14 Jan 2008 a 13 Apr 2008
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO   7 Jan 1999 28 Jan 1999 16 Feb 2005
TUNISIA
22 Jan 2003 a 16 Feb 2005
TURKEY*
28 May 2009 a 26 Aug 2009
TURKMENISTAN 28 Sep 1998 11 Jan 1999 16 Feb 2005
TUVALU 16 Nov 1998 16 Nov 1998 16 Feb 2005
UGANDA
25 Mar 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
UKRAINE* 15 Mar 1999 12 Apr 2004 16 Feb 2005
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
26 Jan 2005 a 26 Apr 2005
UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND* 29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 (6) (7) 16 Feb 2005
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
26 Aug 2002 a 16 Feb 2005
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA* 12 Nov 1998

URUGUAY 29 Jul 1998   5 Feb 2001 16 Feb 2005
UZBEKISTAN 20 Nov 1998 12 Oct 1999 16 Feb 2005
VANUATU
17 Jul 2001 a 16 Feb 2005
VENEZUELA
18 Feb 2005 a 19 May 2005
VIET NAM   3 Dec 1998 25 Sep 2002 16 Feb 2005
YEMEN
15 Sep 2004 a 16 Feb 2005
ZAMBIA   5 Aug 1998   7 Jul 2006   5 Oct 2006
ZIMBABWE
30 Jun 2009 a 28 Sep 2009


* indicates an Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
** indicates an Annex I Party for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol by virtue of Article 1, paragraph 7, of the Kyoto Protocol.

"w" indicates withdrawal

End Note:

(1)
For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol], any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.

(2) In a communication received on 30 August 2002, the Government of the People’s Republic of China informed the Secretary-General of the following:

In accordance with article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1990 and article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1993, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall provisionally not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

Further, in a communication received on 8 April 2003, the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following:

"In accordance with the provisions of Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of 1990, the Government of the People's Republic of China decides that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change continues to be implemented in the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall not apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China until the Government of China notifies otherwise."

In a communication received on 14 January 2008, the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following: In accordance with Article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

(3) With a territorial exclusion to the Faroe Islands.

(4)
For the Kingdom in Europe.

(5) With the following declaration:


".....consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory."

(6) By a communication received on 27 March 2007, the Government of Argentina notified the Secretary-General of the following:

The Argentine Republic objects to the extension of the territorial application to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997 with respect to the Malvinas Islands, which was notified by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Depositary of the Convention on 7 March 2007.

The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime spaces, which are an integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 360 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, which recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to resolve peacefully and definitively the pending problems between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

(7) On 4 April 2006, the Government of the United Kingdom informed the Secretary-General that the Protocol shall apply to the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Isle of Man. On 2 January 2007: in respect of Gibraltar. On 7 March 2007: in respect of Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and the Bailiwick of Jersey.

Text of the Kyoto Protocol

(PDF) Arabic (538 kB)

(PDF) Chinese (243 kB)

(PDF) English (66 kb)

(PDF) French (51 kB)

(PDF) Russian (234 kB)

(PDF) Spanish (59 kB)

 
Status of Ratification of the Convention
States and regional economic integration organizations
which have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
 
Status of Ratification of the Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol

States and regional economic integration organizations which have accepted the Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol (293 kB)