The Kyoto Protocol’s effectiveness will depend upon two critical factors: whether Parties follow the
Protocol’s rulebook and comply with their commitments; and whether the emissions data used to assess
compliance is reliable. Recognizing this, the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakesh Accords, adopted by CMP 1 in
Montreal, Canada, in December 2005, include a set of monitoring and compliance procedures to enforce the
Protocol’s rules, address any compliance problems, and avoid any error in calculating emissions data
and accounting for transactions under the three Kyoto mechanisms (emissions trading, clean development
mechanism and joint implementation) and activities related to land use, land use change and forestry
The Protocol’s monitoring procedures are based on existing reporting and review procedures under the
Convention, building on experience gained in the climate change process over the past decade. They also
involve additional accounting procedures that are needed to track and record Parties’ holdings and
transactions of Kyoto Protocol units - assigned amount units (AAUs), certified emission reductions (CERs) and
emission reduction units (ERUs) - and removal units (RMUs) generated by LULUCF activities.
Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol address reporting and review of information by Annex I Parties
under the Protocol, as well as national systems and methodologies for the preparation of greenhouse gas
- Article 5 commits Annex I Parties to having in place, no later than 2007, national systems for the
estimation of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks (Article 5.1). It also states that,
where agreed methodologies (that is, the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories, see decision 2/CP.3) are not used
to estimate emissions and removals, appropriate "adjustments" should be applied (Article 5.2).
- Article 7 requires Annex I Parties to submit annual greenhouse gas inventories, as well as national
communications, at regular intervals, both including supplementary information to demonstrate compliance with
the Protocol. In addition, Article 7 states that the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to the Protocol (CMP) shall decide upon modalities for the accounting of assigned amounts prior to
the first commitment period.
- Article 8 establishes that expert review teams will review the inventories, and national communications
submitted by Annex I Parties.