Parties requested the secretariat to organize, before its thirty-sixth session, an expert
meeting to address issues related to a range of approaches to address loss and damage associated with
the adverse effects of climate change, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow
onset events, taking into consideration experience at all levels.
The expert meeting took into account the following questions in accordance with the mandate:
1. What is the full range of approaches and tools that can be used to address the risk of loss and
damage, at all levels and for a broad range of sectors and ecosystems, considering both extreme
weather events and slow onset events? Such approaches and tools include, inter alia, conventional,
non-conventional and innovative instruments to address specific types of loss and damage in the
context of this thematic area, especially those driven by the multiplying, magnifying and
intensifying effects of climate change at the national, subnational and local levels. What is known
about the relative cost-effectiveness of these tools?
2. What are the foundational resource requirements (e.g. budget, infrastructure, and technical
capacity for implementation) in order for different strategies and tools to be effectively
3. What are the lessons learned from existing efforts within both the public and private sectors,
considering elements of design, limitations, challenges and best practices?
4. What are the links and synergies between risk reduction and other instruments such as risk
transfer? How can comprehensive risk management portfolios or toolkits be designed?
5. How can risk management approaches be tailored to national contexts? How can
Parties and other stakeholders evaluate which tools might be most appropriate for their particular
risks and circumstances?