Background and Decisions

Technology Executive Committee

Climate Technology Centre and Network

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Finance for Technology

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Essential Background

The UNFCCC and climate technology development and transfer

The UNFCCC provides an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the climate change challenge. In 1992, countries agreed on the text of the Convention, which includes articles on climate technology development and transfer. Since 1994, countries, in accordance with the Convention articles, have taken decisions on climate technology. These decisions have laid down specific actions to be undertaken by countries, the Technology Executive Committee (TEC), the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), the secretariat and other key stakeholders to promote climate development and transfer. 

Article 4.1 (c)Article 4.3
“All Parties … shall: (c) Promote and cooperate in the development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases…”“The developed country Parties … shall also provide such financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, needed by the developing country Parties to meet the agreed full incremental costs of implementing measures that are covered by paragraph 1 of this Article …” 
Article 4.5Article 4.7
“The developed country Parties … shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention…” “The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology…”

Milestones of the Convention

1992 The Rio Conference
2007 Bali Roadmap
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established Agenda 21 and the three Rio conventions, including the UNFCCC. Chapter 34 of Agenda 21 focuses on the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, technology cooperation and capacity-building. COP 13 adopted the Bali Action Plan, which mandated an ad-hoc body to focus on key elements of long-term cooperation, including technology transfer.
1992 UNFCCC2010 Cancun Agreements
Provisions of the UNFCCC text relevant to climate technology development and transfer are contained in Article 4, paragraphs 1(c), 3, 5 and 7.COP 16, as part of the Cancun Agreement, established the Technology Mechanism, comprising the TEC and the Climate Technology Centre and Network.
2001 Marrakesh Accords2012 Doha Gateway
As part of the Marrakesh Accords, COP 7 adopted the framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention, also referred to as the technology transfer framework.In Doha, COP 18 elected UNEP as the host of the Climate Technology Centre. Parties also agreed on the constitution of the Advisory Board to the CTCN, thereby making the Technology Mechanism fully operational.