The UNFCCC provides an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the climate change challenge. Since 1994, countries have taken decisions on climate technology development and transfer. These decisions have laid down specific actions to be undertaken by countries, the Technology Executive Committee, the Climate Technology Centre and Network and the secretariat to promote climate development and transfer.
1992 Agenda 21
2001 Marrakesh Accords
The UN Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established Agenda 21 and the three Rio Conventions, including the UNFCCC. Chapter 34 of Agenda 21 focuses on the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), technology cooperation and capacity-building.
Provisions of the UNFCCC text relevant to climate technology development and transfer are contained in Article 4, paragraphs 1(c), 3, 5 and 7.
The framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention, also referred to as the technology transfer framework, was adopted as part of the Marrakesh Accords.
2007 Bali Roadmap
2010 Cancun Agreements
2012 Doha Gateway
Negotiations at COP 13 resulted in the adoption of the Bali Action Plan, which established the AWG-LCA with a mandate to focus on key elements of long-term cooperation, including technology transfer.
As part of the Cancun Agreements a Technology Mechanism was established at COP 16, comprising the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN).
In Doha, UNEP, as the leader of the consortium of partner organizations, was elected as the host of the Climate Technology Centre. Parties also agreed on the constitution of the Advisory Board to the CTCN, thereby making the Technology Mechanism fully operational.
20th Anniversary of the UNFCCC
Click on the following image to see how technology cooperation for climate action has increased over the last 20 years.