Adoption of the Paris Agreement
Advancing the Durban Platform
Establishment of an Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action
Since the beginning of the Convention, Parties have created ad hoc working groups for considering how to enhance climate technology development and transfer.
|Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform on Enhanced Action|
In 2011, Parties to the UNFCCC established the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). Parties mandated the ADP to develop a protocol, legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties by no later than 2015. The ADP also had a workplan on enhancing the mitigation ambition of Parties. Through this workplan the ADP identified and explored options for actions that could close the ambition gap, thus ensuring the highest possible mitigation efforts by all Parties. Throughout its mandate, the ADP carried out its work under two workstreams: Workstream 1, on matters related to paragraphs 2 to 6 of decision 1/CP.17 (the 2015 agreement); and Workstream 2, on matters related to paragraphs 7 and 8 of the same decision (pre-2020 ambition).
Workstream 1: The 2015 agreement
Technology development and transfer was one of the key elements that Parties considered in the development of the 2015 Paris Agreement. At its session in February 2015, the ADP finalized a negotiating text for the 2015 agreement, referred to as the Geneva negotiating text (FCCC/ADP/2015/1). Technology development and transfer was addressed in paragraphs 129-134. This text was officially communicated to all Parties in the six UN languages on 19 March 2015. At the end of its mandate, completed during COP 21 on 5 December 2015, the ADP delivered to the COP the Draft agreement and draft decision on workstreams 1 and 2 of the ADP. That text was considered by COP 21, leading to the adoption of the Paris Agreement on 12 December 2015. Technology development and transfer is contained in Article 10 of the Agreement.
Workstream 2: Pre-2020 ambition
Technology development and transfer was also central to Workstream 2, playing a crucial role in enhancing pre-2020 ambition. In 2014 and 2015 the ADP implemented the technical examination process (TEP) to identify high-potential mitigation policies, practices and technologies with significant sustainable development co-benefits that could increase pre-2020 mitigation action. The TEP consisted of regular in-session thematic technical expert meetings (TEMs) and focused follow-up work to be conducted by Parties, international organizations and UNFCCC institutions throughout the year. TEMs were organized on: renewable energy; energy efficiency; land-use; urban environment; carbon capture use and storage; and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The TEC and CTCN actively engaged in the TEMs.
|Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention|
In 2007, Parties to the UNFCCC launched a ad hoc working group to conduct a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action up to and beyond 2012 (AWG-LCA). This process addressed, inter alia, how to enhance action on technology development and transfer. As an outcome of the AWG-LCA process, COP 16 established the Technology Mechanism, consisting of the TEC and the CTCN.