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Bilateral Support

Article 4.5 of the Convention urges developed country Parties and Annex II Parties to take all practical steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how  to other Parties, particularly to developing countries, to enable them to implement the Convention. 

Annex II Parties provide information in their National Communications on practicable steps taken with respect to technology transfer activities (go to National Communications). In reporting their technology transfer activities in their fifth National Communications, many Annex II Parties differentiated between activities undertaken at the bilateral level and activities undertaken at the multilateral level.Compilation and synthesis of technology transfer activities reported in the fifth National Communications 

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Donor countryTitle of the projectTechnology transferredRecipient countryBudget
AustraliaPacific Vulnerability and Adaptation InitiativeHuman resources development/training: targeted training in a range of adaptation techniques, including impact assessment, risk management and the integration of these techniques within national development planning and the wider communityTuvalu, Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Tonga$2.8 million
AustraliaIndonesian National Carbon Accounting systemExpert systems, databases, monitoring and reporting analysisIndonesia$2 million
AustraliaPacific Islands Climate Prediction ProjectProvision of and training in climate prediction software, human resources developmentSamoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Fiji, Tonga, Niue and Cook Islands$5.3 million for both phases ($3 million for Phase 2 only)
AustriaSustainable Natural Resource Management Programme, North Gondar ZoneKnow-how regarding pasture management, manure management, biogas equipment, handling of biogas energyEthiopia> US$ 7.68 million
AustriaGeothermal System KocaniKnow-how concerning combined heat and power and long-distance community heatingMacedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)> US$ 2.30 million
AustriaBhutan-Hydropower plant DagachhuHydropower plantBhutanUS$ 6 million
AustriaEnvironmentally sound technologies and cleaner production for SMEs in NicaraguaSolar thermal systemsNicaraguaUS$ 0.94 million
AustriaRural water supply and sanitation in Sofala ProvinceSustainable sanitation infrastructure; solar powered water pumpsMozambiqueUS$ 6.80 million
CanadaCFS Carbon Knowledge and Tools Available to StakeholderThe CBM-CFS3 software and supporting documentation (user's guide and tutorials), plus knowledge and expertise in the use of the CBM-CFS3.International$300,000
CanadaGlobal Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD)Workshops, information sharing and Sourcebook of measurement and monitoring methodologies for REDDInternationalCAD 900K/year contributed by 6 international sponsors (incl. $300K/year from CFS and CSA)
CanadaDevelopment of next generation of nuclear power reactorsSmall scale CHPCanada, Japan, and United States$500,000 over 3 years (GoC Contribution) Private Sector Leverage: $3M
CanadaInternational Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEH) Coalition Project - APP Project workshops and collaborative sessions on energy efficiency, indoor air quality, and ventilation and building envelope durability, including net-zero housing, residential scale combined heat and power, and district energy systems.Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea and the United States$500,000 over 3 years (GoC), $24 M private Sector Leverage
CanadaInvestigation for Demonstration of Plasma Ignition System - APP ProjectSite visits regarding the plasma ignition technology to highlight reliable energy conservation and environment protection technology and its application in China.Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, Korea and the United States$350,000 over 3 years (GoC contribution), Private Sector Leverage: $755,000
CanadaMagnesium Front End Research and Development ProjectHigh-vacuum die casting, sheet forming, and technologies for joining dissimilar metals. The mechanism of transfer is through workshops held on an annual basis for researchers and engineers from the three countries.Canada, People's Republic of China, United States of AmericaUS$22 million
CanadaDevelopment of next generation of nuclear power reactorsNext generation nuclear energy systems, specifically, the Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) and the Very-high Temperature Reactor (VHTR).Partners include Canada, U.S., France, EU, Switzerland, China, Korea, Japan, South Africa$4,800,000
CanadaVLH turbine collaborationVery Low Head Hydraulic TurbineU.S., Canada$610,000 (GoC, includes in-kind) $2,190,000 (CDN project partner leveraging) $1,180,000 (US contribution)
Canada TEAM (Technology Early Action Measures)Hydropower in Nepal: small hydro generation Natural gas vehicle flagship project in India: compressed natural gas technologies for vehicles Energy- efficient chiller systems for Cuba: energy-efficient, CFC-free chillers Demonstration of EcoSmart Concrete in Dubai: EcoSmart concrete Small Scale Biogas Utilization in Argentina: remote monitoring; telemetry-based control system Transportable Plasma Waste to Energy System: plasma waste to energy technologyVarious$128 M
CanadaIEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage ProjectLong-term subsurface storage of carbon dioxide. Development of state-of-the-art CO2 measurement, monitoring and verification technologies.Partners include: Japan and the US$12.75
CanadaTransferring Small Hydro Technologies to China ProjectSmall hydro automation, river basin optimization systems, enhanced turbine design, and mini and micro hydro systems. Capacity building complimented the technical work.China$2 Million
CanadaMarine Energy: Optimization of Next Generation Commercial Kinetic Hydropower SystemKinetic Hydropower Systems and components, and electricity generation and interconnection subsystemsUSA, Canada$460,000 (GoC contribution), $274,800 (CDN partners leveraging)
CanadaReduction of Emissions from Coal-Based Power GenerationUser-friendly CFD tool for analysis of coal-?red utility boilers to reduce diagnostic time and costs, optimize power generation while reducing GHG, NOx and other emissionsChina$2,000,000 (CIDA)
CanadaDistributed Energy Resources ProgramVarious reports and papers, IEA Annexes, 1st International Conference and Workshop on Micro-Cogeneration Technologies and ApplicationsCanada$5.2 M
DenmarkEnergy Sector Support ProgrammeMicro hydro power plants, PV solar panels, quality assurance system. End-user ownership and maintenance responsibility.Nepal191 Mill. DKK
DenmarkZafarana Wind Farm Project, Component IIIWind turbines, operation and maintenance skills. Tariff structures.Egypt319.4 Mill. DKK
DenmarkDanish-Chinese Wind Energy Development ProgrammeWind mapping, integration of wind energy into transmission system, feasibility format for wind farm development, wind farm management skills.China45 Mill. DKK
DenmarkSustainable utilisation of fire wood Forest management tools, small scale business development.Burkina Faso6 Mill. DKK
DenmarkMangrove Management Information System as tool for mitigating the effects of climate changeGIS monitoring technology and Monitoring Information System knowledge.Vietnam3 Mill. DKK
European UnionDevelopment Support for a new fuel, substituting charcoal, based on biomass from household waste collected in the Rugenge sector in Kigali, 2005build local capacity for the development and production of alternative fuel based on biomass collected from household organic waste.Rwanda 
European UnionCommunity-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Enterprise Support - 2005An empowerment and capacity-building programmeNamibiaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.75 million
European UnionVillage Tree Enterprise project, Region West Africa - 2005This project helps villagers analyse and develop options for income generation sustainable management of forest resources, building on their existing knowledge of resources and marketsRegion West AfricaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 2.4 million
European UnionMobilisation and reinforcement of the capacity of SME's involved in forest related products in Central Africa, 2005knowledge sharing, packaging techniques to improve exportability of products, Improved management and organisational skills, Facilitated access to credit, capital and machineryRegion Central AfricaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 3 million
European UnionInstallation of a steam engine powered generation set at Charter Sawmill - Zimbabwesuitable steam engine powered generator to run off of the existing boilers installed at Charter SawmillZimbabweEC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.5 million
European UnionCapacity building on business opportunities for CDM projects in China - 2004local level capacity building activities in carbon trading for private stakeholdersChinaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.18 million
European UnionEU-China CDM Facilitation Project - 2005Strengthening the capacity of China's Designated National Authority (DNA), the National and Regional CDM Centres, and Chinese Organisations applying for Designated Operational Entity (DOE) status; Introduction of European and International Standard in Quality Management of the CDM development process; Increasing awareness of CDM opportunities and enhance the CDM framework conditions in the Chinese CDM market.ChinaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 23.5 million
European UnionMicrofinance & Renewable Energy: Using microfinance to increase access to Renewable Energy in rural areas - China 2006Capacity-building through the transfer of competencesChinaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.27 million
European UnionCapacity building of Thai food industries on ''Carbon footprint labelling'' to promote the development of low-carbon trade between EU and Thailand for climate change mitigation - 2007Knowledge sharing on carbon footprint measurement standardsThailandEC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.2 million
European UnionForest livelihoods for the poor: certification, market development and an enabling economic and policy environment for sustainable forestry in Central America - Region Central America - 2005forest-related capacity-buildingRegion Central AmericaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 2.2 million
European UnionImproving the productivity of SME's in the industrial forestry sector, 2004 Argentinatechnical assistance, capacity building and equipment needed to improve the competitiveness, environmental performance and skills base of companies operating in the forestry sectorArgentinaEC contribution to project's budget EUR 3.8 million
European UnionPro-diversity Business in the steppe zones of the Eurasia region - 2006The project seeks to put in place a structures through which SMEs can be engaged in delivering economically viable biodiversity conservation activities in the Eurasian Steppes.Eurasia regionEC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.6 million
European UnionChina-EU Biodiversity Programme, 2004Protected areas management, sustainable management of natural resources, development of participative approachesChinaEUR 30 million
European UnionEuro-Asian Research and Training in Climate Change Management (CLIMA), 2005Capacity building, researchRegional AsiaEUR 0.73 million
European UnionEURO-SOLAR, solar systems and ICT for remote regions, 2006Renewable energy technology, capacity building, communicationsLatin America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay)EUR 27.8 million
European UnionLeña, renewable energy for the conservation of native forests in the south of Chile, 2006Capacity building, best certification practicesChileEUR 3.4 million
European UnionRegional Programme for the reduction of environmental degradation and vulnerability (PREVDA)Capacity building, best practices in basin planning and protectionCentral AmericaEUR 20 million
European UnionHydro-Biopower in EthiopiaRenewable energy technology, capacity buildingEthiopiaEUR 0.74 million
European UnionRegional Weather Radar Warning SystemWeather monitoring technology, disaster risk reductionCaribbean RegionEUR 13.2 million
European UnionRegional Solar ProgrammeRenewable energy technology (solar); water access and water purificationRegion West AfricaEUR 65 million (PRS1+2)
European Union(TEP) Adding value to renewable energy technologies as well as knowledge and experience transfer, 2006Renewable energy technologiesFrench Polynesia, Wallis, New Caledonia, FutunaEUR 10.3 million
European UnionRenewable Energy Policy and the Rehabilitation of Small Scale Hydropower PlantsRenewable energy technologies, capacity buildingRussiaEUR 2 million
European UnionEnergy Efficiency in the Construction Sector in the Mediterranean (MED-ENEC)Renewable energy technologies, capacity buildingAll Mediterranean countriesEUR 4 million
European UnionSustainable Integrated Land Use of the Eurasian SteppesRenewable energy technologieMoldova, Russia, UkraineEUR 2.5 million
FinlandEnergy and Environment Partnership with Central AmericaDemonstration projects, feasibility studies and equipment for small hydroelectric power plants in Guatemala, El Salvador and NicaraguaCentral American countriesEUR 7,000,000
FinlandVIETAUDITA whole range of energy audit expertise, from general to simple and including more complex casesVietnamEUR 1,000,000
FinlandSUFORD, Sustainable forestry for rural development projectParticipatory forest management could provide a sound base for further development of the REDD concept. New and innovative tools for forest carbon assessment. High resolution satellite images and airborne laser scanning (LIDAR).Lao PDRPhase I: EUR 6,000,000 Phase II: EUR 9,000,000
FinlandPost-Emergency Reconstruction Programme in the Field of Meteorology  MozambiqueEUR 4,200,000
FranceProjet VIGIRISC Afrique - Appui a` la mise en place de syste`mes de vigilance face au risque climatique en Afrique African region 
GermanyTurbine modernisation, modernisation of power stationsDesulphurisation technology; mobile measuring units for optimisation of resources use and combustion processes; modernisation of low-pressure technology and improvement of resources efficiency.ChinaEUR 38 million
GermanyWind energy in China / Xinxiang, DabanchangWind-turbine technology, technical and operational know-howChinaEUR 38 million
GermanyGeothermal power stations in Olkaria (Olkaria II, III)Tested, advanced technology, with modern plant control: Olkaria III is a two-phase binary geothermal power station that uses the Organic Rankine Cycle. Expanded plant size for Olkaria II and III; technical and organisational support.KenyaEUR 12.8 million
GermanySupport for the Vietnamese biogas-promotion programmeBiogas technology replaces use of firewood in food preparationVietnamDED support EUR 55,000 / year for 5 years is planned Total: EUR 275,000
GreeceApplications of Renewable Energy and Energy Saving methodsSolar systems and energy saving lighting equipment for household use in affected regions of South Lebanon, supply and installation of testing and measurement equipment for solar collectors, aiming at the creation of a permanent centre for solar testingLebanon700.000 Euro
GreeceAction Plan for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy SourcesInstallation of solar & energy savings systemsTurkey456.666 Euro
GreeceInstallation of solar systems for household use in poor households in the region of Monaragalasolar systems for household useSri Lanka290.000 Euro
ItalySecond generation biofuel: cellulosic ethanolAnalysis on how the selected energy crops will impact on the logistic chain of the bioethanol conversion process. Transfer of knowledge regarding: energy crops cultivation, storage/harvesting and logistic; second generation plant specification and process description.Mexico100,000 Euros
ItalyCollaboration between the Italian Ministry for the Environment Land and Sea and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization – Investment and technology Promotion Office Italy (UNIDO ITPO Italy) for the identification and development of investment projects within environmental sector in Egypt and Morocco.Several technologies have been transferred through Joint Venture or Technology Transfer agreements concluded between private companies active in the above-mentioned sectors (renewable energies; water treatment; waste treatment and recycling)Egypt, Morocco470,000 Euros
ItalyBiomass substitution of fossil fuels in cement kiln of Italcementi Group plant in ThailandBiomass feeding and burning technology from Group engineers
- Technical assistance and training of local engineers
Thailand700,000 Euros
ItalyEni Flaring Down Program (exploration & production division)construction of costly infrastructures such as new gas pipelines, highly efficient electrical plants and gas liquefaction facilitiesTunisia, Libya, Congo, Algeria, Nigeria3,664 million euros in the 2009-2012 period
JapanYen Loans for Climate Change Countermeasures - (1) New Haripur Power Plant Development Project, (2) Central Zone Power Distribution Project Bangladesh(1) 22.21 billion yen (2) 9.715 billion yen
JapanGrant Aid for Environment Programs. The Programme for Improvement of Solid Waste Management in Dhaka City toward the Low Carbon Society Bangladesh1.215 billion yen
JapanGrant Aid and Loan Assistance, Seamless Assistance- Cyclone and flood countermeasures, emergency assistance, rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance Bangladesh 
JapanProgramme Grant Aid for Environment and Climate Change The Project for Community-Based Flood Disaster Management to Adapt to Climate Change in the Nyando River Basin Kenya 
JapanDevelopment Survey - Grant Aid Comprehensive Agricultural Development of Prek Thnot River Basin, Project for Improvement of Roleang Chrey Headworks Cambodia 
JapanMitigation Measure Assistance using Japanese ODA Loans (CDM Project) Zafarana Wind Power Plant Project Egypt13,497 (million JPY)
JapanYen Loans for Climate Change Countermeasures - (1) New Haripur Power Plant Development Project, (2) Central Zone Power Distribution Project Indonesia 
New ZealandLoss Reduction Project: TuvaluThe project recommended a number of ways that Tuvalu can reduce its reliance on diesel generation through a greater use of wind, copra oil, biogas and energy-efficiency technologiesTuvaluNZ$138,500
SwedenPilot Project Providing Electricity Services Using Photovoltaic Solar Systems through Energy Service Companies in Rural areas in ZambiaPV energy technology, leadership and administrative skills, marketing capacityZambiaSEK 12.8m
SwedenAsia Sustainable and Alternative Energy ProgrammeInstitutional support in the form of the energy and infrastructure sector, development of energy services for 1.1 million households (coconut oil, wind, biomass, small-scale hydropower etc.), increase in generating capacity of 1 455 MWChina, Vietnam, Indonesia, India and BangladeshSEK 15m
SwitzerlandClimate Change Adaptation Programme (PACC)Capacity building in tools and techniques for climate change adaptation in water resources management, food security and risk management; Know-how transfer regarding climate change modelling and vulnerability assessment as well as data collection and interpretation.PeruCHF 4,9 million for programme implementation
CHF 1,12 million for scientific Know-How Transfer
SwitzerlandCarbon Finance Assist (World Bank Institute)• Transfer of know-how regarding the establishment of DNAs and establishment of CDM/climate units within municipal administrations • New CDM methodologies • Capacity and skills development of public authorities at the national and sub-national level, regarding identification, structuring, implementation and marketing of CDM projectsGlobalCHF 3 million
SwitzerlandRehabilitation of the district heating system in the city of Iasi, Romania (co-financing with EBRD and Municipality of Iasi)First experience with factory assembled automated compact thermal stations; Modern devices; Awareness raising and training of optimized operation of the district heating systemRomaniaEUR 31.8 million of which EUR 7 million Swiss grant
SwitzerlandRoundtable on Sustainable BiofuelsTransfer of know-how regarding the establishment of Life Cycle databases; Measuring software for biofuels LCAGlobalCHF 0.6 million
SwitzerlandEnergy Efficient Building Programme South AfricaIntroduction of energy efficient technology of the brick sector (Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln) developed in India and Nepal to South Africa; Transfer of Know-how regarding the production and use of energy efficient materials and technology in the construction of buildings through establishment of partnerships among South-African and Swiss Research Institutes; Capacity and skills Development of workers of the building sectorsSouth AfricaCHF 16 million
SwitzerlandCompetence network for Small and Micro Learning Enterprises (CoSMiLE) IndiaHolistic package, containing also social and economic components and strong capacity building elements; Foundries: Divided blast cupola for grey iron melting; pollution control systems; Bricks: Setting up of vertical shaft brick kilns; Glass: Energy efficient pot furnaces for glass melting; Biomass gasifiers for a wide variety of thermal applicationsIndiaCHF 7 million
The NetherlandsPromoting Renewable Energy Programme (PREP)Renewable energy technologyAfrican countries, IndonesiaEuro 500 million
The NetherlandsAccess to Energy Fund (AEF), FMO (Finance for Development)By providing financing for projects involved in the generation, transmission or distribution of energy, the Fund hopes to ultimately connect 2.1 million people in developing countries by 2015FMO is targeting at least 75% of the total AEF capital for Sub-Saharan Africa and/or Least Developed Countries and a maximum of 25% in other emerging markets.Euro 70 million
The NetherlandsAsia Biogas ProgrammeBy the end of 2008, more than 250,000 households (1.6 million people) have been equipped with biogas plants. Because of these achievements SNV is now, at the invitation of the Asian Development Bank leading a working group on domestic biogas in the framework of the ?Energy for All Partnership‘. Through this initiative, an additional one million biogas plants are planned across the Asian region by 2015.Nepal, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDREuro 12.9 million
The Netherlands Access to Energy Fund (AEF), FMO (Finance for DevelopmentIn cooperation with Hivos, SNV‘s biogas activities have been expanded to include Africa. Rwanda is the first country of engagement, with another six countries targeted. This Programme took off at the end of 2008 and aims to reach 70,000 households by 2013Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda and KenyaEuro 29.9 million
The NetherlandsPreparedness for Climate Change programme of Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate CentreThe PFCs helps national unions in 37 developing countries to analyse risks and implications of climate change and to develop enhanced disaster management plans. Change is now integrated in the strategy and plans of the International Federation (including regional offices) and in 40 national unions in developing countries.37 countriesEuro 1.26 million