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Bilateral Support

Article 4.5 of the Convention urges developed country Parties and Annex II Parties to take all practical steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how  to other Parties, particularly to developing countries, to enable them to implement the Convention. 

Annex II Parties provide information in their National Communications on practicable steps taken with respect to technology transfer activities (go to National Communications). In reporting their technology transfer activities in their fifth National Communications, many Annex II Parties differentiated between activities undertaken at the bilateral level and activities undertaken at the multilateral level.Compilation and synthesis of technology transfer activities reported in the fifth National Communications 


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Donor countryTitle of the projectTechnology transferredRecipient countryBudget
Australia Pacific Vulnerability and Adaptation Initiative Human resources development/training: targeted training in a range of adaptation techniques, including impact assessment, risk management and the integration of these techniques within national development planning and the wider community Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Tonga $2.8 million
Australia Indonesian National Carbon Accounting system Expert systems, databases, monitoring and reporting analysis Indonesia $2 million
Australia Pacific Islands Climate Prediction Project Provision of and training in climate prediction software, human resources development Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Fiji, Tonga, Niue and Cook Islands $5.3 million for both phases ($3 million for Phase 2 only)
Austria Sustainable Natural Resource Management Programme, North Gondar Zone Know-how regarding pasture management, manure management, biogas equipment, handling of biogas energy Ethiopia > US$ 7.68 million
Austria Geothermal System Kocani Know-how concerning combined heat and power and long-distance community heating Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of) > US$ 2.30 million
Austria Bhutan-Hydropower plant Dagachhu Hydropower plant Bhutan US$ 6 million
Austria Environmentally sound technologies and cleaner production for SMEs in Nicaragua Solar thermal systems Nicaragua US$ 0.94 million
Austria Rural water supply and sanitation in Sofala Province Sustainable sanitation infrastructure; solar powered water pumps Mozambique US$ 6.80 million
Canada CFS Carbon Knowledge and Tools Available to Stakeholder The CBM-CFS3 software and supporting documentation (user's guide and tutorials), plus knowledge and expertise in the use of the CBM-CFS3. International $300,000
Canada Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) Workshops, information sharing and Sourcebook of measurement and monitoring methodologies for REDD International CAD 900K/year contributed by 6 international sponsors (incl. $300K/year from CFS and CSA)
Canada Development of next generation of nuclear power reactors Small scale CHP Canada, Japan, and United States $500,000 over 3 years (GoC Contribution) Private Sector Leverage: $3M
Canada International Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEH) Coalition Project - APP Project workshops and collaborative sessions on energy efficiency, indoor air quality, and ventilation and building envelope durability, including net-zero housing, residential scale combined heat and power, and district energy systems. Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea and the United States $500,000 over 3 years (GoC), $24 M private Sector Leverage
Canada Investigation for Demonstration of Plasma Ignition System - APP Project Site visits regarding the plasma ignition technology to highlight reliable energy conservation and environment protection technology and its application in China. Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, Korea and the United States $350,000 over 3 years (GoC contribution), Private Sector Leverage: $755,000
Canada Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project High-vacuum die casting, sheet forming, and technologies for joining dissimilar metals. The mechanism of transfer is through workshops held on an annual basis for researchers and engineers from the three countries. Canada, People's Republic of China, United States of America US$22 million
Canada Development of next generation of nuclear power reactors Next generation nuclear energy systems, specifically, the Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) and the Very-high Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Partners include Canada, U.S., France, EU, Switzerland, China, Korea, Japan, South Africa $4,800,000
Canada VLH turbine collaboration Very Low Head Hydraulic Turbine U.S., Canada $610,000 (GoC, includes in-kind) $2,190,000 (CDN project partner leveraging) $1,180,000 (US contribution)
Canada  TEAM (Technology Early Action Measures) Hydropower in Nepal: small hydro generation Natural gas vehicle flagship project in India: compressed natural gas technologies for vehicles Energy- efficient chiller systems for Cuba: energy-efficient, CFC-free chillers Demonstration of EcoSmart Concrete in Dubai: EcoSmart concrete Small Scale Biogas Utilization in Argentina: remote monitoring; telemetry-based control system Transportable Plasma Waste to Energy System: plasma waste to energy technology Various $128 M
Canada IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project Long-term subsurface storage of carbon dioxide. Development of state-of-the-art CO2 measurement, monitoring and verification technologies. Partners include: Japan and the US $12.75
Canada Transferring Small Hydro Technologies to China Project Small hydro automation, river basin optimization systems, enhanced turbine design, and mini and micro hydro systems. Capacity building complimented the technical work. China $2 Million
Canada Marine Energy: Optimization of Next Generation Commercial Kinetic Hydropower System Kinetic Hydropower Systems and components, and electricity generation and interconnection subsystems USA, Canada $460,000 (GoC contribution), $274,800 (CDN partners leveraging)
Canada Reduction of Emissions from Coal-Based Power Generation User-friendly CFD tool for analysis of coal-?red utility boilers to reduce diagnostic time and costs, optimize power generation while reducing GHG, NOx and other emissions China $2,000,000 (CIDA)
Canada Distributed Energy Resources Program Various reports and papers, IEA Annexes, 1st International Conference and Workshop on Micro-Cogeneration Technologies and Applications Canada $5.2 M
Denmark Energy Sector Support Programme Micro hydro power plants, PV solar panels, quality assurance system. End-user ownership and maintenance responsibility. Nepal 191 Mill. DKK
Denmark Zafarana Wind Farm Project, Component III Wind turbines, operation and maintenance skills. Tariff structures. Egypt 319.4 Mill. DKK
Denmark Danish-Chinese Wind Energy Development Programme Wind mapping, integration of wind energy into transmission system, feasibility format for wind farm development, wind farm management skills. China 45 Mill. DKK
Denmark Sustainable utilisation of fire wood Forest management tools, small scale business development. Burkina Faso 6 Mill. DKK
Denmark Mangrove Management Information System as tool for mitigating the effects of climate change GIS monitoring technology and Monitoring Information System knowledge. Vietnam 3 Mill. DKK
European Union Development Support for a new fuel, substituting charcoal, based on biomass from household waste collected in the Rugenge sector in Kigali, 2005 build local capacity for the development and production of alternative fuel based on biomass collected from household organic waste. Rwanda  
European Union Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Enterprise Support - 2005 An empowerment and capacity-building programme Namibia EC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.75 million
European Union Village Tree Enterprise project, Region West Africa - 2005 This project helps villagers analyse and develop options for income generation sustainable management of forest resources, building on their existing knowledge of resources and markets Region West Africa EC contribution to project's budget EUR 2.4 million
European Union Mobilisation and reinforcement of the capacity of SME's involved in forest related products in Central Africa, 2005 knowledge sharing, packaging techniques to improve exportability of products, Improved management and organisational skills, Facilitated access to credit, capital and machinery Region Central Africa EC contribution to project's budget EUR 3 million
European Union Installation of a steam engine powered generation set at Charter Sawmill - Zimbabwe suitable steam engine powered generator to run off of the existing boilers installed at Charter Sawmill Zimbabwe EC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.5 million
European Union Capacity building on business opportunities for CDM projects in China - 2004 local level capacity building activities in carbon trading for private stakeholders China EC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.18 million
European Union EU-China CDM Facilitation Project - 2005 Strengthening the capacity of China's Designated National Authority (DNA), the National and Regional CDM Centres, and Chinese Organisations applying for Designated Operational Entity (DOE) status; Introduction of European and International Standard in Quality Management of the CDM development process; Increasing awareness of CDM opportunities and enhance the CDM framework conditions in the Chinese CDM market. China EC contribution to project's budget EUR 23.5 million
European Union Microfinance & Renewable Energy: Using microfinance to increase access to Renewable Energy in rural areas - China 2006 Capacity-building through the transfer of competences China EC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.27 million
European Union Capacity building of Thai food industries on ''Carbon footprint labelling'' to promote the development of low-carbon trade between EU and Thailand for climate change mitigation - 2007 Knowledge sharing on carbon footprint measurement standards Thailand EC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.2 million
European Union Forest livelihoods for the poor: certification, market development and an enabling economic and policy environment for sustainable forestry in Central America - Region Central America - 2005 forest-related capacity-building Region Central America EC contribution to project's budget EUR 2.2 million
European Union Improving the productivity of SME's in the industrial forestry sector, 2004 Argentina technical assistance, capacity building and equipment needed to improve the competitiveness, environmental performance and skills base of companies operating in the forestry sector Argentina EC contribution to project's budget EUR 3.8 million
European Union Pro-diversity Business in the steppe zones of the Eurasia region - 2006 The project seeks to put in place a structures through which SMEs can be engaged in delivering economically viable biodiversity conservation activities in the Eurasian Steppes. Eurasia region EC contribution to project's budget EUR 0.6 million
European Union China-EU Biodiversity Programme, 2004 Protected areas management, sustainable management of natural resources, development of participative approaches China EUR 30 million
European Union Euro-Asian Research and Training in Climate Change Management (CLIMA), 2005 Capacity building, research Regional Asia EUR 0.73 million
European Union EURO-SOLAR, solar systems and ICT for remote regions, 2006 Renewable energy technology, capacity building, communications Latin America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay) EUR 27.8 million
European Union Leña, renewable energy for the conservation of native forests in the south of Chile, 2006 Capacity building, best certification practices Chile EUR 3.4 million
European Union Regional Programme for the reduction of environmental degradation and vulnerability (PREVDA) Capacity building, best practices in basin planning and protection Central America EUR 20 million
European Union Hydro-Biopower in Ethiopia Renewable energy technology, capacity building Ethiopia EUR 0.74 million
European Union Regional Weather Radar Warning System Weather monitoring technology, disaster risk reduction Caribbean Region EUR 13.2 million
European Union Regional Solar Programme Renewable energy technology (solar); water access and water purification Region West Africa EUR 65 million (PRS1+2)
European Union (TEP) Adding value to renewable energy technologies as well as knowledge and experience transfer, 2006 Renewable energy technologies French Polynesia, Wallis, New Caledonia, Futuna EUR 10.3 million
European Union Renewable Energy Policy and the Rehabilitation of Small Scale Hydropower Plants Renewable energy technologies, capacity building Russia EUR 2 million
European Union Energy Efficiency in the Construction Sector in the Mediterranean (MED-ENEC) Renewable energy technologies, capacity building All Mediterranean countries EUR 4 million
European Union Sustainable Integrated Land Use of the Eurasian Steppes Renewable energy technologie Moldova, Russia, Ukraine EUR 2.5 million
Finland Energy and Environment Partnership with Central America Demonstration projects, feasibility studies and equipment for small hydroelectric power plants in Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua Central American countries EUR 7,000,000
Finland VIETAUDIT A whole range of energy audit expertise, from general to simple and including more complex cases Vietnam EUR 1,000,000
Finland SUFORD, Sustainable forestry for rural development project Participatory forest management could provide a sound base for further development of the REDD concept. New and innovative tools for forest carbon assessment. High resolution satellite images and airborne laser scanning (LIDAR). Lao PDR Phase I: EUR 6,000,000 Phase II: EUR 9,000,000
Finland Post-Emergency Reconstruction Programme in the Field of Meteorology    Mozambique EUR 4,200,000
France Projet VIGIRISC Afrique - Appui a` la mise en place de syste`mes de vigilance face au risque climatique en Afrique   African region  
Germany Turbine modernisation, modernisation of power stations Desulphurisation technology; mobile measuring units for optimisation of resources use and combustion processes; modernisation of low-pressure technology and improvement of resources efficiency. China EUR 38 million
Germany Wind energy in China / Xinxiang, Dabanchang Wind-turbine technology, technical and operational know-how China EUR 38 million
Germany Geothermal power stations in Olkaria (Olkaria II, III) Tested, advanced technology, with modern plant control: Olkaria III is a two-phase binary geothermal power station that uses the Organic Rankine Cycle. Expanded plant size for Olkaria II and III; technical and organisational support. Kenya EUR 12.8 million
Germany Support for the Vietnamese biogas-promotion programme Biogas technology replaces use of firewood in food preparation Vietnam DED support EUR 55,000 / year for 5 years is planned Total: EUR 275,000
Greece Applications of Renewable Energy and Energy Saving methods Solar systems and energy saving lighting equipment for household use in affected regions of South Lebanon, supply and installation of testing and measurement equipment for solar collectors, aiming at the creation of a permanent centre for solar testing Lebanon 700.000 Euro
Greece Action Plan for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Sources Installation of solar & energy savings systems Turkey 456.666 Euro
Greece Installation of solar systems for household use in poor households in the region of Monaragala solar systems for household use Sri Lanka 290.000 Euro
Italy Second generation biofuel: cellulosic ethanol Analysis on how the selected energy crops will impact on the logistic chain of the bioethanol conversion process. Transfer of knowledge regarding: energy crops cultivation, storage/harvesting and logistic; second generation plant specification and process description. Mexico 100,000 Euros
Italy Collaboration between the Italian Ministry for the Environment Land and Sea and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization – Investment and technology Promotion Office Italy (UNIDO ITPO Italy) for the identification and development of investment projects within environmental sector in Egypt and Morocco. Several technologies have been transferred through Joint Venture or Technology Transfer agreements concluded between private companies active in the above-mentioned sectors (renewable energies; water treatment; waste treatment and recycling) Egypt, Morocco 470,000 Euros
Italy Biomass substitution of fossil fuels in cement kiln of Italcementi Group plant in Thailand Biomass feeding and burning technology from Group engineers
- Technical assistance and training of local engineers
Thailand 700,000 Euros
Italy Eni Flaring Down Program (exploration & production division) construction of costly infrastructures such as new gas pipelines, highly efficient electrical plants and gas liquefaction facilities Tunisia, Libya, Congo, Algeria, Nigeria 3,664 million euros in the 2009-2012 period
Japan Yen Loans for Climate Change Countermeasures - (1) New Haripur Power Plant Development Project, (2) Central Zone Power Distribution Project   Bangladesh (1) 22.21 billion yen (2) 9.715 billion yen
Japan Grant Aid for Environment Programs. The Programme for Improvement of Solid Waste Management in Dhaka City toward the Low Carbon Society   Bangladesh 1.215 billion yen
Japan Grant Aid and Loan Assistance, Seamless Assistance- Cyclone and flood countermeasures, emergency assistance, rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance   Bangladesh  
Japan Programme Grant Aid for Environment and Climate Change The Project for Community-Based Flood Disaster Management to Adapt to Climate Change in the Nyando River Basin   Kenya  
Japan Development Survey - Grant Aid Comprehensive Agricultural Development of Prek Thnot River Basin, Project for Improvement of Roleang Chrey Headworks   Cambodia  
Japan Mitigation Measure Assistance using Japanese ODA Loans (CDM Project) Zafarana Wind Power Plant Project   Egypt 13,497 (million JPY)
Japan Yen Loans for Climate Change Countermeasures - (1) New Haripur Power Plant Development Project, (2) Central Zone Power Distribution Project   Indonesia  
New Zealand Loss Reduction Project: Tuvalu The project recommended a number of ways that Tuvalu can reduce its reliance on diesel generation through a greater use of wind, copra oil, biogas and energy-efficiency technologies Tuvalu NZ$138,500
Sweden Pilot Project Providing Electricity Services Using Photovoltaic Solar Systems through Energy Service Companies in Rural areas in Zambia PV energy technology, leadership and administrative skills, marketing capacity Zambia SEK 12.8m
Sweden Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Programme Institutional support in the form of the energy and infrastructure sector, development of energy services for 1.1 million households (coconut oil, wind, biomass, small-scale hydropower etc.), increase in generating capacity of 1 455 MW China, Vietnam, Indonesia, India and Bangladesh SEK 15m
Switzerland Climate Change Adaptation Programme (PACC) Capacity building in tools and techniques for climate change adaptation in water resources management, food security and risk management; Know-how transfer regarding climate change modelling and vulnerability assessment as well as data collection and interpretation. Peru CHF 4,9 million for programme implementation
CHF 1,12 million for scientific Know-How Transfer
Switzerland Carbon Finance Assist (World Bank Institute) • Transfer of know-how regarding the establishment of DNAs and establishment of CDM/climate units within municipal administrations • New CDM methodologies • Capacity and skills development of public authorities at the national and sub-national level, regarding identification, structuring, implementation and marketing of CDM projects Global CHF 3 million
Switzerland Rehabilitation of the district heating system in the city of Iasi, Romania (co-financing with EBRD and Municipality of Iasi) First experience with factory assembled automated compact thermal stations; Modern devices; Awareness raising and training of optimized operation of the district heating system Romania EUR 31.8 million of which EUR 7 million Swiss grant
Switzerland Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels Transfer of know-how regarding the establishment of Life Cycle databases; Measuring software for biofuels LCA Global CHF 0.6 million
Switzerland Energy Efficient Building Programme South Africa Introduction of energy efficient technology of the brick sector (Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln) developed in India and Nepal to South Africa; Transfer of Know-how regarding the production and use of energy efficient materials and technology in the construction of buildings through establishment of partnerships among South-African and Swiss Research Institutes; Capacity and skills Development of workers of the building sectors South Africa CHF 16 million
Switzerland Competence network for Small and Micro Learning Enterprises (CoSMiLE) India Holistic package, containing also social and economic components and strong capacity building elements; Foundries: Divided blast cupola for grey iron melting; pollution control systems; Bricks: Setting up of vertical shaft brick kilns; Glass: Energy efficient pot furnaces for glass melting; Biomass gasifiers for a wide variety of thermal applications India CHF 7 million
The Netherlands Promoting Renewable Energy Programme (PREP) Renewable energy technology African countries, Indonesia Euro 500 million
The Netherlands Access to Energy Fund (AEF), FMO (Finance for Development) By providing financing for projects involved in the generation, transmission or distribution of energy, the Fund hopes to ultimately connect 2.1 million people in developing countries by 2015 FMO is targeting at least 75% of the total AEF capital for Sub-Saharan Africa and/or Least Developed Countries and a maximum of 25% in other emerging markets. Euro 70 million
The Netherlands Asia Biogas Programme By the end of 2008, more than 250,000 households (1.6 million people) have been equipped with biogas plants. Because of these achievements SNV is now, at the invitation of the Asian Development Bank leading a working group on domestic biogas in the framework of the ?Energy for All Partnership‘. Through this initiative, an additional one million biogas plants are planned across the Asian region by 2015. Nepal, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR Euro 12.9 million
The Netherlands  Access to Energy Fund (AEF), FMO (Finance for Development In cooperation with Hivos, SNV‘s biogas activities have been expanded to include Africa. Rwanda is the first country of engagement, with another six countries targeted. This Programme took off at the end of 2008 and aims to reach 70,000 households by 2013 Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya Euro 29.9 million
The Netherlands Preparedness for Climate Change programme of Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre The PFCs helps national unions in 37 developing countries to analyse risks and implications of climate change and to develop enhanced disaster management plans. Change is now integrated in the strategy and plans of the International Federation (including regional offices) and in 40 national unions in developing countries. 37 countries Euro 1.26 million