Since the beginning of the Convention, Parties have created ad hoc working groups to support the work of the UNFCCC. Many of the groups have considered how to enhance technology development and transfer.
COP 21 established the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) to prepare for the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. The APA will also work towards the convening of the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
Prior to the Paris Agreement, in 2011 the COP established the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). It requested the ADP to develop a protocol, legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties by no later than 2015. The body also had a workplan on enhancing the mitigation ambition of countries. Through this workplan, the ADP identified and explored options for actions that could close the ambition gap, ensuring the highest mitigation efforts by all Parties. The ADP carried out its work through two workstreams.
Technology development and transfer was one of the key elements that countries considered in the development of the 2015 Paris Agreement. In February 2015 the ADP finalized the Geneva negotiating text for the 2015 agreement, with a dedicated section on technology development and transfer. To conclude its mandate, the ADP delivered to COP 21 the ADP’s draft agreement and draft decision on workstreams 1 and 2. This led to the adoption of the Paris Agreement, with technology development and transfer contained in its Article 10.
Countries noted that technology development and transfer also plays a crucial role in enhancing pre-2020 ambition. In 2014 and 2015 the ADP implemented the technical examination process (TEP) to identify high-potential mitigation policies, practices and technologies that could increase pre-2020 mitigation action. The TEP consisted of in-session thematic technical expert meetings (TEMs) and focused follow-up work conducted throughout the year. TEMs were organized on renewable energy, energy efficiency, land-use, urban environment, carbon capture, use and storage and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network actively engaged in the TEMs.
One of TEP’s key outcomes was identified mitigation policy options: replicable and scalable good practices, approaches and technologies with significant mitigation potential. Other outputs were a summary for policymakers and detailed technical papers. Explore the outcomes of the technical examination process
In 2007, the COP established an ad hoc working group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA). It tasked the AWG-LCA with conducting a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action up to and beyond 2012. This process addressed, inter alia, how to enhance action on technology development and transfer. As one of the outcomes from the group’s work, COP 16 established the Technology Mechanism.