The results already achieved in this activity from 2006-2010 include:
Environmental conditions in Nawanshehr have significantly improved as direct consequence of
the watershed improvement activities. Capacity and performance of local administration has
significantly improved to better manage the natural resources and infrastructure.
Due to its successes in Abbottabad, the concept of EFR has been integrated in the
‘Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper II’ being finalized by the Government of
The broad engagement and active involvement of local institutions, administration,
communities including children and commercial service provision in the capacity building and
pilot processes have established high buy-in and commitment, therefore showing significant
changes in environmental management in Abbottabad.
Improvements of the local governance structures were achieved. Cooperation lays a very
important foundation for adaptability of these structures, processes and activities to future
external changes (including climatic) and demands.
The EFR activity has generated high quality research work that has explicated the
applicability of fiscal measures in Pakistan for resource management, adaptation co-benefits
and pro-poor decision-making.
The activity aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of poverty reduction and environmental
improvement through undertaking a set of environmental fiscal reforms initiatives.
In the drinking water sector 2,700 feet of new water distribution pipes were installed in
Nawanshehr to ensure that sufficient water is supplied to domestic consumers. Thereby, and by
planting trees and maintaining the watershed, short and long-term employment opportunities
were created. Capacity of the Union Council was built to improve water resource management
and to ensure access to all consumers. A progressive block tariff system was then introduced
in which consumers pay according to usage; beneficiaries of ‘Zakat’ and
‘Bait-ul-Maal’ are exempted from any payments except for nominal monthly fees in
order to ensure water access to all segments of the community. Also, the introduction of fees
introduces an incentive to conserve scarce water resources.
Importantly, involvement of women and youth were sought in all aspects of the activity, since
often women are the ones directly using e.g. cooking water. Citizens, in particular children
and women, showed high motivation to manage solid waste for betterment of environment, health
hazards and also to generate revenue.
In the solid waste sector pro-poor fiscal measures have been successfully demonstrated in
many forms. Through community mobilization, five Mohellah Environmental Committees have been
established and have hired their own waste collectors paid through small contributions from
all the households. Secondly, school environmental clubs were established in five schools in
Nawanshehr. Children are educated on recyclable materials and encouraged to bring these to
their school once a week. These are sold to local merchants to generate revenue for the
school, which is utilized for betterment of services and excursions into the natural
environment. Thirdly, kitchen gardening practices through composting of organic waste have
been promoted and at least nineteen kitchen gardens established during the activity duration.
This practice was very well received particularly by low income households as it helps in
reducing expenses for purchased vegetables. Fourth, registered waste merchants pay Rs.150 per
month to the Town Committee as tax, in return of permission to do business in the area and
creating further income opportunities through paying garbage collectors. The town utilizes
the collected revenue for betterment of services and through registration has better
management oversight. The pilot showed that waste management can directly and significantly
improve quality of life for local residents and reduce long-term environmental pollution.
Overall, the environmental conditions in Nawanshehr town are reported to have significantly
improved because of implementing the pilots in the two sectors. Performance and capacity to
better manage the existing resources and infrastructure have significantly and lastingly been
The improved environmental conditions in Nawanshehr have created further demand to
introduce other environmental fiscal measures in the area and also to implement the tested
measures at a wider scale. This shows the high applicability and suitability of simple EFR
measures to the
The proposed replicability of this EFR activity targets two main aspects. On the one hand
dissemination of the research work, success factors and recommendations to all tiers of
policy, administration and communities shall widely raise awareness and support
decision-making. On the other hand the feasibility of EFR and the opportunities therein when
applied on a larger scale need to be communicated, in order to achieve lasting development
results in which environmental factors, social participation and economic instruments are
A conducted research study showed that among the urban sample 92% were willing to pay for
improved water services, whereas in rural areas 69% overall were willing to pay. The mean
willingness to pay was estimated at 58 rupees per household per month. Both aspects show high
potential for replicability and upscaling of EFR in the water sector.
Output 1 for upscaling: Achievements and lessons learnt documented:
i. Prepare a lessons learnt document on application of EFR in to adapt to climate change
in water sector in Abbottabad, including beneficiary perspectives;
ii. Prepare policy brief on best practices and recommendations per stakeholder
iii. Prepare a video documentary on EFR as viable instrument for adapting to climate
iv. Advice to planning agencies on all levels (federal, provincial, district and urban
planning) regarding the integration and mainstreaming of EFR into planning processes.
Output 2 for upscaling. Effectiveness and efficacy of EFR for adapting to climate change
disseminated, opportunities for up-scaling explored:
i. Networking for opportunities of scaling-up and replication of EFR activities in
Pakistan and elsewhere;
ii. Criteria for successful up-scaling (including appropriate pricing, adaptation and
mitigation co-benefits, means of participation, etc.) devised, based on shared experiences
during networking events, to be used to facilitate and improve pro-poor EFR
As the activity finished in 2010, no funding is currently available for up-scaling.