Decision 10/CP.21 on the
2013–2015 review (10/CP.21), paragraph 4, decided in relation to the long-term global goal, and
in the light of the ultimate objective of the Convention that the long term global is to hold the
increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and to
pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels,
recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change.
This is reflected in the
Paris Agreement (Decision 1/CP.21).
The Structured Expert
Dialogue (SED) held its last meeting in Geneva in February 2015. As mandated by the Subsidiary Bodies
at their 41st session, the report of SED 4 is available here, and the final factual report of the SED is
contained in FCCC/SB/2015/INF.1.
The SBSTA and the SBI had,
at their forty-first session, invited Parties to submit their views on any other information or gaps
in information relevant to the 2013–2015 review, as well as their views on the adequacy of the
long-term global goal in the light of the ultimate objective of the Convention and of the overall
progress made towards achieving the long term global goal, including consideration of the
implementation of the commitments under the Convention. These submissions were considered at the
forty-second session and are available
At SBSTA 42 and SBI 42, the
Joint Contact Group on the 2013–2015 review was invited to consider the above-mentioned
submissions by Parties and the report of the SED in its deliberation on further steps on the
2013–2015 review, including in preparing a draft decision for consideration and adoption at the
twenty-first session of the COP. The SBSTA and
the SBI agreed to continue their consideration of this matter at SBSTA 43 and SBI 43. The relevant
conclusions can be found here.
A special event of the
SBSTA and SBI was held on 2 June on the margins of the climate change conference in Bonn to launch the final report
on the SED. At this event, the co-facilitators presented the SED report, followed by a panel
discussion and a Q&A session. (see here for more information).
As requested by the SBSTA and SBI at their 39th
sessions, the third meeting of the SED (SED 3) took place in conjunction with SB 40, in Bonn, Germany.
SED 3 advanced the work of the SED by considering the two themes of the review in a balanced manner,
with a special focus on the contribution of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) to its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 WGII) and the contribution of Working Group III to
the AR5 (AR5 WGIII). The consideration of both themes involved outreach presentations made by experts
and a discussion between Parties and experts. On the AR5 WGII, topics addressed included: observed
impacts and projected risks associated with various levels of warming, including warming to 2
°C/1.5 °C; human interference with the climate system; the link between socioeconomic
pathways and climate change risks; adaptation options, needs, opportunities and associated costs; and
climate-resilient pathways, and the link between adaptation, mitigation and sustainable
On the AR5 WGIII, topics addressed included:
transformation pathways and limiting warming to 2 °C/1.5 °C; sectoral and cross-sectoral
mitigation pathways; trends in the stocks and flows of greenhouse gas emissions and their drivers;
international cooperation on mitigation; policy, socioeconomic, equity and ethical aspects of climate
change; and cross-cutting mitigation investment and finance issues. Relevant materials for SED 3 are
See conclusions FCCC/SBSTA/2014/2, paragraphs
69-80, and FCCC/SBI/2014/8, paragraphs
Also pursuant to the mandate from SB 39, the fourth
meeting of the SED (SED 4) will take place on 2-3 December 2014, in Lima, Peru, in conjunction with SB
41. More information will be available in due course.
At SB 40, Parties agreed the following
- The SBs requested the SED co-facilitators to convene an additional SED meeting after SB 41,
in conjunction with a ADP meeting and prior to SB 42;
- They requested the secretariat to prepare a note containing an indicative, descriptive
identification of what information will be available and by when regarding information from Parties
for consideration by the SED;
- They also requested the SED co-facilitators to identify potential additional inputs, taking into
account information from UN, international and regional agencies and information gap;
- They invited Parties to submit their views on additional inputs to the SED, on how to conclude
the review and on the final reporting of the SBs to COP 21;
- Parties are encouraged to continue to take note of the information from the review as they engage
in the ADP process.
The third SED meeting was held on 6-8 June 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The goal of SED 3 was to make a
contribution to the assessment of the adequacy of the long-term global goal and the overall progress
made towards achieving it, to the extent possible, on the basis of the AR5 WGII and the AR5 WGIII.
Parties had constructive discussions with IPCC experts, including: the relationship between
adaptation and mitigation; the assessment of risks and costs for 1.5 °C temperature rise;
definition of adaptation cost and mitigation cost; associated risks for low-stabilization pathways;
the feasibility of the radical transformation referred in the WGIII report. Relevant materials for
the third meeting are available here.
At SB 40, Parties agreed the following issues:
The SBs requested the SED co-facilitators to convene an additional SED meeting after SB 41, in
conjunction with a ADP meeting and prior to SB 42;
They requested the secretariat to prepare a note containing an indicative, descriptive identification
of what information will be available and by when regarding information from Parties for
consideration by the SED;
They also requested the SED co-facilitators to identify potential additional inputs, taking into
account information from UN, international and regional agencies and information gap;
They invited Parties to submit their views on additional inputs to the SED, on how to conclude the
review and on the final reporting of the SBs to COP 21;
Parties are encouraged to continue to take note of the information from the review as they engage in
the ADP process.
The first SED meeting on the 2013–2015 review was held on 5 June 2013 in Bonn, Germany. The
summary report and relevant documents, including agenda and presentations, can be found here.
The second SED meeting was held on 12 and 13 November 2013 in Warsaw, Poland. During the meeting,
experts from IPCC, TEC, CTCN, SCF and GEF made presentations. The issues addressed included:
relationships between emissions and changes in the climate system; implications of multiple targets;
insights on the long-term aspects of climate change; irreversible changes; uncertainties; and
progress in the area of finance and technology transfer. Relevant materials for the second meeting
are available here.
SBSTA39 and SBI39 requested the SED co-facilitators to organize SED meetings in 2014 in conjunction
with SB40 and SB41, and also requested the co-facilitators to assess the need for additional
meetings. They also invited Parties to submit their views on (i) the future work of the SED,
including the further use of different sources of information and (ii) how the outcomes of the review
will inform the work of the ADP. Those submissions are due by 26 March 2014 and will be compiled into
miscellaneous documents( FCCC/SB/2014/MISC.1 and
The SED facilitators also submitted the report of the SED to the COP (FCCC/SB/2013/INF.12:
'Report of the structured expert dialogue of the 2013–2015 review for 2013 Note by the
co-facilitators of the structured expert dialogue”).
See conclusions FCCC/SBSTA/2013/5
(paragraphs 127-138) and FCCC/SBI/2013/20
The COP agreed that the 2013-2015 review will periodically assess (a) The adequacy of the long-term
global goal in the light of the ultimate objective of the Convention; and (b) Overall progress made
towards achieving the long-term global goal, including a consideration of the implementation of the
commitments under the Convention.
In addition, regarding the “expert consideration of the inputs”, the COP decided to
establish a structured expert dialogue to ensure the scientific integrity of the review. Under the
guidance of the subsidiary bodies, the structured expert dialogue will consider available material
through regular scientific workshops and expert meetings. The dialogue will be facilitated by two
co-facilitators, one from Annex I and one from non-Annex I, and they will report on work done by the
structured expert dialogue to the COP.
Parties also agreed on a prompt start of the review and requested the SB to take the steps necessary
in 2013 to start the consideration of inputs without delay at SB38. They also invited SB to
gather and compile information relevant for conducting the review.
See decision 1/CP.18 (pages
15-16, para 79-91)
Parties continued to discuss the scope of the 2013-2015 review under the AWG-LCA. In Durban, the
COP decided to consider its further definition of the scope with a view to taking a decision at COP18.
The COP agreed that it will conduct the review with the assistance of the SBSTA and the SBI, and the
work will be supported by expert consideration of the inputs. The COP further agreed that it will
define the “expert consideration of the inputs” to provide technical support to the
In addition, it agreed that the review will be conducted based on various information, including;
IPCC reports, national information, reports from UN agencies and observed impacts from regional
See decision 2/CP.17 (pages
28-29, para 157-167).
The issue of the 2013-2015 review has been negotiated under the agenda of a shared vision for a
long-term cooperative action of the AWG-LCA. In Cancun, the COP agreed to reduce global GHG emissions
to hold the increase in the global average temperature below 2°C above preindustrial levels (so
called, the 2°C goal), and recognized the need to consider strengthening the long-term global goal
on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge, including in relation to a global average
temperature rise of 1.5°C, in the first review.
See decision 1/CP.16 (page 3,
A stand-alone chapter for the review was included in the same decision. In this chapter, the COP
decided to periodically review the adequacy of the long-term global goal and overall progress towards
achieving it, starting in 2013 and concluding by 2015. It also decided to consider strengthening the
goal i.e., 1.5 degree temperature rise.
The COP will take appropriate action based on the outcome of the review in 2015.
See decision 1/CP.16 (pages
23-24, para 138-140)