MRV for developed country Parties set to advance at COP 19
modalities for the measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of developed country commitments and
actions under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol will be taken forward at COP 19/CMP 9 in Warsaw, with decisions expected
to be agreed to enhance accuracy, consistency and transparency.
Under the Convention, the UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines for Annex I GHG Inventories will be
finalized in Warsaw. These revised Guidelines will incorporate the latest science for estimating
GHG emissions, as embodied in the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG
inventories. Under the Kyoto Protocol, reporting issues integral to the functioning of the second
commitment period, such as reporting on tradable units or various accounting and reporting modalities
will be decided.
Together, finalization of these rules will improve the quality of data on GHG emissions from Annex I
Parties, as well as clarify the obligations of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in the second commitment
Preparing for the 2014 launch of the IAR process
With the international assessment and review (IAR) process for developed country Parties set for
launch in early 2014, the reviews of national communications and biennial reports are of critical
importance to ensure that the process is effective.
To support negotiations under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) on the revision of review guidelines for biennial
reports, national communications and GHG inventories, a technical workshop was organized by the
UNFCCC secretariat from 7 – 9 October 2013. The focus of this workshop was on the overall
approach to the review process, including a discussion on streamlining the review process, as well as
on the development of the review guidelines for biennial reports and national communications. A
workshop summary report and a revised draft of the review guidelines will serve as input to
discussions at the thirty-ninth session of SBSTA, with the aim of adopting these guidelines by COP
19/CMP 9 in Warsaw.
Reporting under the Convention by developing country Parties: looking ahead to Warsaw
COP 19/CMP 9 in Warsaw will consider two important
items relating to reporting by developing country Parties: the term and mandate of the
Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) beyond 2013, and the composition,
modalities and procedures of the team of technical experts for conducting technical analysis under
the international consultation and analysis (ICA) process.
On the term and mandate of the CGE beyond 2013: Parties could not complete the consideration of the
term and mandate of the CGE at COP
18 in Doha. Instead, the group was extended for another year and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation was asked to continue the
consideration. Meanwhile, there is acknowledgement of the substantial contribution the CGE has made
in enhancing the capacity of non-Annex I Parties to prepare their national communications. Parties
also recognize that the CGE can play an important role in facilitating technical advice and support
for the preparation and submission of the first biennial update report by non-Annex I Parties.
On the subject of composition, modalities and procedures of the team of technical experts for
conducting technical analysis: while the modalities and guidelines for international consultation and
analysis were adopted at COP 17 in Durban, there are still some key operational details that have to
be agreed upon. These include the composition, modalities and procedures of the team of technical
experts for conducting technical analysis under the international consultation and analysis (ICA)
Agreement on these issues at COP 19/CMP 9 is important because the ICA process for non-Annex I
Parties will be conducted within six months of submission of the first biennial update reports
(BURs), which are
expected to be submitted by December 2014.
Latest on the web-based NAMA registry and NAMA regional workshops
The secretariat deployed the web-based NAMA registry in October 2013, following a
six-month prototype period. The registry was established to record nationally appropriate mitigation
actions (NAMAs) as well as information
on financial, technology and capacity building support for their actions; and to facilitate matching
of NAMAs with support. The new release of the registry is open to the public, which will be able to
browse all information contained in the platform. As of 1 September 2013, the registry
contained 4 entries on support and 40 NAMA entries. The first report on registry operation will
be presented to COP 19/CMP
9 in Warsaw.
With financial support from several Annex I Parties, the secretariat has been organizing regional
workshops to build capacity for preparing and implementing NAMAs. These workshops provide a
space for representatives from all regions to share experiences and information, including the
process of identifying NAMAs; financial aspects; measuring reporting and verification; and the
functioning and operation of the registry.
Further, the workshops include interaction with representatives from donor agencies, bilateral and
multilateral organizations on issues relating to interpreting NAMAs and exchanging ideas on ways to
facilitate their implementation. The workshop for the African region took place in Maseru, Lesotho from 16-19 April
2013. For Asia and the Pacific, the
workshop took place in Singapore, from 13-15 August 2013. The last workshop in 2013 will be organized
for Latin America and the Caribbean and will be held in Mexico from 10-13 December.
Shaping results-based financing for REDD-plus
At its eighteenth session in Doha, the COP decided to
undertake a work programme on
results-based finance in 2013, including two workshops, to contribute to ongoing efforts to scale up
and improve the effectiveness of finance for REDD-plus activities.
The second workshop on results-based finance for REDD-plus under the related COP work programme took
place from 21-22 August in Bonn. The workshop was attended by 90 participants representing developing
country Parties, developed country Parties, IGOs and NGOs. UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana
Figueres welcomed the participants to the workshop by noting the importance of both reducing
deforestation in the fight against climate change and of scaled up financing for mitigation actions
in the forest sector.
Through discussions facilitated by the co-chairs - Ms Christina Voigt of Norway and Mr Agus Sari of
Indonesia - Parties identified elements of common ground in the architecture of results-based
financing for the full implementation of actions relating to REDD-plus.
Parties, particularly developing country Parties, noted the need for clarity on the adequacy and
predictability of scaled-up finance for implementing all phases of REDD-plus. They also stressed the
need for ambition in decisions on results-based finance for REDD-plus and to make significant
progress on this matter at COP
19/CMP 9 in Warsaw, where the discussions will continue.
Incentivizing action on climate change
Progress is being made on three work programmes aimed at incentivizing action on climate change that
were established under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) last year at the eighteenth Conference of the Parties
(COP 18) in Doha, namely on:
- The framework for various approaches (FVA)
- The new market-based mechanism (NMM)
- Non-market-based approaches (NMA)
At SBSTA 38 held in Bonn in June
this year, the FVA began taking shape as an umbrella mechanism that could oversee and govern the
generation of internationally tradable mitigation units and outcomes from different mechanisms and
approaches that could be used for compliance under the UNFCCC. Although the framework is still to be
defined, Parties are gradually providing guidance on what they expect the FVA to do and how it should
do it. There is also increasing support to consider both NMAs and the NMM as components of the FVA.
The NMM is developing as a top-down model to generate tradable reductions that can be used for
compliance under the UNFCCC with flexibility for bottom-up implementation. Unlike the FVA, the NMM
was defined at COP 17 in
Durban and therefore exists as a mechanism under the Convention, but is not yet operational, since
modalities and procedures still need to be developed. Its main differences to the Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) are that the NMM is
available to non-Kyoto Protocol Parties; aspires to have a wider coverage than project- and
programme-based activities; may allow not only for crediting, but also for trading; and it aims to go
beyond offsetting to achieve net mitigation.
It was recognized at SBSTA 38 that NMAs are already widely employed to mitigate climate change. Such
approaches include, for example, carbon taxes, energy efficiency standards, and fossil fuel and
agricultural subsidy reforms. Furthermore, a number of non-market-based approaches are already
operational or elaborated under the UNFCCC, such as the Technology Mechanism, nationally
appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs)
and non-market-based approaches for REDD-plus. The main challenge posed by this work programme lies in
identifying the added value that can be provided by considering NMAs as a separate agenda item under
the UNFCCC umbrella.
At SBSTA 38, Parties requested a technical synthesis for the FVA and the NMM, as well as a workshop
to be organized on each of the three issues. The
workshops took place in Bonn from 7 to 9 October. A full day was devoted to each issue, and a
report from each workshop will be made available before COP 19/CMP 9 in Warsaw. To kick off the
discussions in Warsaw, a side event will be held on 11 November to share the outcomes of the
workshops with Parties and observers who were unable to attend the workshops in Bonn.
A two-day workshop also took
place at the June sessions to work on the review of the modalities and procedures of the CDM.
Interesting ideas to improve the CDM were identified and captured in the workshop report. In
addition, the CDM Executive Board (EB) has prepared 22 recommendations to Parties to the Kyoto
Protocol to feed into the review, and substantive discussions on this issue will be taken up in
The CDM Board, at its 75th
meeting, and the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee, at its 33rd meeting, prepared their respective
reports presenting their work since Doha and their recommendations to the ninth session of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The CDM EB
will hold its 76th meeting from 4–8 November in Warsaw.
In the second week of the COP, a high-level roundtable on market approaches for enhanced climate
action is planned.