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Ratification of the Paris Agreement - Background information
 
Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted the Paris Agreement by decision 1/CP.21, at the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties held in Paris, France, in December 2015.

In accordance with Article 21, paragraph 1, of the Paris Agreement, the Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 % of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Depositary.

The COP requested the secretariat, solely for the purpose of determining entry into force of the Paris Agreement, to make available on the website information on the most up-to-date total and per cent of greenhouse gas emissions communicated by Parties to the Convention in their national communications, greenhouse gas inventory reports, biennial reports or biennial update reports.

By decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 5, the COP recognized that Parties may provisionally apply all of the provisions of the Agreement pending its entry into force and requested Parties to provide any such provisional application to the Depositary.

As at 21 September 2016, 60 Parties to the Convention had deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval with the Depositary, thereby achieving the first requirement for entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article 21, paragraph 1. 

On 5 October 2016, further to the deposit of the instruments of ratification,acceptance or approval to the Paris Agreement by 74 Parties to the Convention, the per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions achieved was 58.82 per cent.  With the two requirements for entry into force achieved on 5 October 2016, the Paris Agreement will pdf-icon enter into force on 4 November 2016.

An Information Note on the entry into force of the Paris Agreement highlighting the legal requirements and implications has also been prepared by the secretariat and is available pdf-icon here (235 kB) .

The Treaty Section of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs provides technical assistance to Parties regarding international procedures for ratification, acceptance, approval and accession. Further information, including the Treaty Handbook, which contains model instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval and accession, can be found on the Treaty Section webpage, which is accessible here

Status of Ratification
States and regional economic integration organizations which have ratified the Paris Agreement.
 
Information on GHG emissions communicated by Parties to the Convention for the purpose of determining entry into force (Annex I of COP 21 Report)
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