1) Overview of existing reporting and review requirements for Annex I Parties under the
Reporting by Annex I Parties under the Convention
Reporting and review requirements under the Convention encompass the following elements:
- National greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories which contain information on GHG emissions, such as activity
data, emission factors and methodologies used to estimate these emissions;
- National communications which contain information on national GHG emissions, climate related policies and
measures, GHG projections, vulnerability and adaption to climate change, financial assistance and technology
transfer to non-Annex I Parties, and actions on raising public awareness on climate change; and
- Biennial reports which contain information on progress in achieving emission reductions and the provision
of financial technology and capacity-building support to non-Annex I Parties.
Reporting and review of national GHG inventories of Annex I Parties are based on reporting and review
guidelines (decisions 18/CP.8, 19/CP.8 and 14/CP.11). National GHG inventories are reported annually by
Annex I Parties following reporting guidelines agreed by the COP and methodology developed by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). They are reviewed annually by ERTs following agreed
review guidelines. Reporting comprises a National Inventory Report (NIR) and Common Reporting Format
(CRF) tables. The NIR includes qualitative and qualitative information, such as a description of
methodologies used, emission factors, activity data and emission trends and analysis thereof, uncertainties,
quality assurance and quality control. The CRF tables include data and results from inventory
National communications are submitted by Annex I Parties every 4–5 years following decisions for each
submission by the Conference of the Parties (COP). They are prepared and reported periodically by Annex
I Parties based on agreed reporting guidelines (decision 4/CP.5). They are reviewed, within 1–2
years from the submission date, by international expert review teams (ERTs) following specific mandates
included in COP decisions. Also, the UNFCCC secretariat prepares the “compilation and synthesis
reports” on Annex I NCs, which are considered by the SBs and COP, as a basis for a substantive
discussion on the implementation of the Convention by Annex I Parties.
The COP, by decision 1/CP.16, decided that developed country Parties should enhance reporting in national
communications and submit biennial reports, which outline progress in achieving emission reductions and the
provision of financial, technology and capacity-building support to non-Annex I Parties, building on existing
reporting and review guidelines, processes and experiences. Decision 1/CP.16 also established a new process,
international assessment and review (IAR), under the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) for developed
country Parties that aims to promote the comparability of efforts among all developed country Parties with
regard to their quantified economy-wide emission limitation and reduction targets (link).
The detailed guidelines for the preparation of BRs contained in annex I to decision 2/CP.17 were adopted by
COP 17 in Durban. The COP also decided, among other things, that Developed country Parties shall submit the
first BR by 1 January 2014 and the second and subsequent BR two years after the due date of a full NC (i.e.
2016, 2020), and in the years when the full NCs are submitted, BRs can be presented either as an annex to the
NC or as a separate report.
Review for Annex I Parties under the Convention
The “Guidelines for the technical review of information reported under the Convention related to
greenhouse gas inventories, biennial reports and national communications by Parties included in Annex I to
the Convention” were adopted by Parties at COP 20 in Lima as contained in decision 13/CP.20. These
review guidelines provide a solid foundation for the technical reviews of national communications and
biennial reports under the new IAR process, as well as for the review of GHG inventories.
Reviews are co-ordinated by the secretariat and conducted by international ERTs. Reviews of GHG
inventories are conducted through centralized reviews and in-country reviews. In accordance with the
review guidelines, at least once in five years, the review of a Party’s GHG inventory should be
conducted through an in-country review. The review guidelines also envisage an option of a desk review, but
this option has rarely been used. In-depth reviews of the national communications as a rule are
conducted through in-country visits. Reviews of biennial reports are conducted in conjunction with the
national communications when they are submitted in the same years. When biennial reports are not submitted in
the same years as the national communications, the reviews are conducted through centralized reviews.
The purpose of the review by ERTs is to provide a thorough and comprehensive technical assessment of the
implementation of the Convention by Annex I Parties, and to ensure that the COP has sufficient information to
carry out its responsibilities to review the implementation of the Convention. The outcome from the
reviews are is reflected in review reports, which are prepared under the collective responsibility of the
ERT. The draft reports are provided to the Parties for review and comments before their publication and
placing them on the UNFCCC web-page.
To ensure that the review process is comprehensive and rigorous, the secretariat has prepared training
courses for review of greenhouse gas inventories, biennial reports and national communications. Only experts
who successfully pass the examination can participate in the reviews.
More information on the training programme can be found here
2) Overview of existing reporting and review requirements for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto
Reporting for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
As in the case of the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol imposes two regular, on-going reporting requirements for
Annex I Parties: an annual report and a periodic national communication. In both
cases, Parties should submit the information elements as required by the Convention and include additional
information related to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
For the annual report, each Annex I Party is required to submit a national GHG
inventory, as required by the Convention, plus supplementary information on its
implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. This supplementary information covers:
- The Party’s holdings of and transactions of Kyoto Protocol units;
- Emissions and removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities under Article 3,
paragraphs 3 and 4, and calculations of the amount to be added or subtracted from the assigned amount;
- Changes in the Party’s national system;
- Changes in the Party’s national registry;
- Information on the Party’s implementation of its commitment to strive to minimize adverse social,
environmental and economic impacts of its climate change mitigation actions on developing country Parties.
Each Annex I Party must also provide the following supplementary information on its implementation of the
Kyoto Protocol in its periodic national communications:
- A description of the national system;
- A description of the national registry;
- An explanation of how the Party’s use of the Kyoto mechanisms is supplementary to domestic action;
- Information on the Party’s implementation of policies and measures under Article 2;
- A description of the Party’s legislative, enforcement and administrative arrangements;
- Technology transfer, capacity-building and other Article 10 activities;
- Financial assistance to non-Annex I Parties.
In addition to the annual report and national communication, Annex I Parties had to submit two additional
one-time reports, namely the demonstrable progress report in the context of Article 3,
paragraph 2, and the initial report. A separate report covering the true-up
period should be submitted for that period. Figure 1 illustrates the four types of report that
are required from Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol.
Initial reports had to be submitted by Annex I Parties by 31 December 2006 or one year after
the entry into force of the Protocol for the Party, and contained the following information:
- A complete GHG inventory time-series (from 1990 to the latest reported year, usually 2004);
- The Party’s calculation of its assigned amount;
- The Party’s calculation of its commitment period reserve (CPR);
- A description of the national registry;
- A description of the Party’s national system;
- Parameters related to the accounting of LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4.
The true-up period report, due at the end of the commitment period, is intended to enable the determination
of the Party’s compliance with its Article 3, paragraph 1, commitment. This report must contain
final information on the Party’s holdings of and transactions of Kyoto Protocol units, including all
units retired for compliance purposes.
Figure 1. Kyoto Protocol reports
Review for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
Each report submitted by an Annex I Party is subject to review by international ERTs. Similarly to the review
under the Convention, the purpose of the review under the Kyoto Protocol is to provide a thorough technical
assessment of the Party’s implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. and to ensure that the CMP has
sufficient information to carry out its responsibilities to review the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
The outcome from review is reflected in review report, which is prepared under the collective responsibility
of the ERT. The draft report is provided to Party for review and comments before its publication and placing
on the UNFCCC web-page.
However, the review process under the Kyoto Protocol is much more rigorous than the review under the
Convention. In particular, if the ERT identifies a problem with a Party’s implementation of a
particular commitment that is not resolved by the Party during the review, the ERT has the authority to list
the problem as a ‘question of implementation’ in its final review report. An ERT
can raise questions of implementation only when there is an unresolved problem regarding implementation by a
Party of a mandatory commitment. All review reports, including those that do not list any questions of
implementation, are forwarded to the Compliance Committee for its consideration.
In contrast to the Convention, the ERTs have specific responsibilities with respect to the accounting of
emissions and assigned amounts. If an ERT is of the opinion that a Party’s inventory is incomplete, or
has been prepared in a manner which is not consistent with the IPCC methodologies, IPCC Good Practice
Guidance for LULUCF, and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse
Gas Inventories, it may recommend the application of an ‘adjustment’.
During the annual review and in the true-up period, ERTs should assess reported information on holdings of
Kyoto Protocol units and on their transactions, and compare this information with that maintained by the
International Transaction Log (ITL). ERTs should also review any information on problems identified by the
ITL. If an ERT identifies a problem with a particular transaction, it may recommend a
‘correction’ to the Kyoto units. A correction is analogous to an inventory
adjustment. However, whereas adjustments are applied to inventory estimates, corrections are applied to a
Party’s holdings of Kyoto Protocol units.
To ensure that the review process is comprehensive and rigorous, similarly to the approach taken under the
Convention, the secretariat has prepared training courses for review under the Kyoto
Protocol. In addition to the training under the Convention GHG inventories, these courses include training on
the national system, national registry, accounting for the assigned amount and review of information reported
under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4. It organizes training of experts that is performed through on-line
courses for those experts that have already taken the Convention courses and successfully passed the
examinations. Only experts who successfully pass the examination can participate in the annual reviews.
Reporting and review for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol and linkages to compliance
The fundamental difference between the reporting and review system under the Convention and
under the Kyoto Protocol is that the latter is linked to compliance. Given the
binding nature of emission targets, e.g. QELROs, any problem relating to these targets,
identified through the reporting and review system, should be considered by the Enforcement Branch of the
Compliance Committee. In addition, the Enforcement Branch considers any issues related to
eligibility to participate in the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms. Any unresolved question of
implementation that affects the eligibility requirements, for example a question related to the national
system and national registry, can lead to the suspension of eligibility until this question has been
Any consideration and decision by the Enforcement Branch of the Compliance Committee is reported to the
Figure 2 summarizes the main reporting and review requirements under the Convention and the Kyoto
Protocol. For the Kyoto Protocol it shows the linkages between the reporting and review system and
3) Existing reporting and review methodologies, guidelines and requirements
A large number of guidelines underpin the operationalization of the reporting and review requirements under
the current climate change regime, which are primarily applicable to Annex I Parties. The reporting and
review guidelines are prepared by the subsidiary bodies to the Convention and adopted by COP or CMP through
decisions. For GHG emission inventories the guidelines usually include reference to the guidelines prepared
by the IPCC as a methodological basis for GHG inventory preparation.
Most of these guidelines are technical in nature, extensive in scope and complex in content, which reflects
the complexity of the relevant issues and processes, such as the preparation of national GHG inventories or
reporting on national policies and measures, and financial assistance. The existing guidelines and the
related key methodological documents are listed below.
For national GHG inventories, the key documents are:
- Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories;
- IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories;
- IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry;
- Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the
Convention, Part I: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories;
- Guidelines for the technical review of greenhouse gas inventories from Parties included in Annex I to the
For national communications, the key documents are:
- Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the
Convention, Part II: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on national communications;
The elements of additional reporting that is required from Kyoto Protocol Annex I Parties,
including accounting information, are defined through the following documents and decisions:1
- Modalities for the accounting of assigned amounts under Article 7, paragraph 4 of the Kyoto Protocol
- Standard electronic format for reporting Kyoto Protocol units (decision 14/CMP.1)
- Guidelines for the preparation of the information required under Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol
- Land use, land-use change and forestry (decision 16/CMP.1)
- Guidelines for national systems under Article 5, paragraph 1, of the Kyoto Protocol (decision 19/CMP.1)
- Good practice guidance and adjustments under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol (decision
- Issues relating to adjustments under Article 5, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol 21/CMP.1
- Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol (decision 22/CMP.1)
- Terms of service for lead reviewers (decision 23/CMP.1).
For biennial reports, the key documents are:
- Guidelines for the preparation of BRs contained in annex I to decision 2/CP.17;
- Guidelines for the technical review of information reported under the Convention related to greenhouse
gas inventories, biennial reports and national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the
Convention (decision 23/CP.19).
Figure 2 Summary of the main reporting and review requirements under the Convention and the Kyoto
1 See also the Kyoto Protocol Reference Manual which presents in detail the accounting rules
under the Kyoto Protocol, available here.