Guidelines under Articles 5, 7 and 8: Methodological Issues, Reporting and Review under the
The Kyoto Protocol’s effectiveness will depend upon two critical factors: whether Parties
follow the Protocol’s rulebook and comply with their commitments; and whether the emissions
data used to assess compliance is reliable. Recognizing this, the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakesh
Accords, adopted by CMP 1 in Montreal, Canada, in December 2005, include a set of monitoring and
compliance procedures to enforce the Protocol’s rules, address any compliance problems, and
avoid any error in calculating emissions data and accounting for transactions under the three Kyoto
mechanisms (emissions trading, clean development mechanism and joint implementation) and activities
related to land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF).
The Protocol’s monitoring procedures are based on existing reporting and review procedures
under the Convention, building on experience gained in the climate change process over the past
decade. They also involve additional accounting procedures that are needed to track and record
Parties’ holdings and transactions of Kyoto Protocol units - assigned amount units (AAUs),
certified emission reductions (CERs) and emission reduction units (ERUs) - and removal units (RMUs)
generated by LULUCF activities.
Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol address reporting and review of information by Annex I
Parties under the Protocol, as well as national systems and methodologies for the preparation of
greenhouse gas inventories.
- Article 5 commits Annex I Parties to having in place, no later than 2007, national systems for
the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks (Article 5.1). It also
states that, where agreed methodologies (that is, the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National
Greenhouse Gas Inventories, see decision 2/CP.3) are not used to
estimate emissions and removals, appropriate "adjustments" should be applied (Article 5.2).
- Article 7 requires Annex I Parties to submit annual greenhouse gas inventories, as well as
national communications, at regular intervals, both including supplementary information to
demonstrate compliance with the Protocol. In addition, Article 7 states that the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Protocol (CMP) shall decide upon modalities for
the accounting of assigned amounts prior to the first commitment period.
- Article 8 establishes that expert review teams will review the inventories, and national
communications submitted by Annex I Parties.
The Protocol states that guidelines for national systems, adjustments, the preparation of inventories
and national communications, as well as for the conduct of expert reviews, should be adopted by the
CMP at its first session (CMP 1), and regularly reviewed thereafter.
COP 7 and Marrakesh Accords
At COP 7, Parties reached agreement on the details of Articles 5, 7 and 8. The accounting
and review systems set out in the Marrakesh Accords aim to be transparent so that all data,
except those designated as confidential, are to be made publicly available. At the conclusion of COP
7 some sections of the guidelines under Articles 7 and 8 were not completed, mainly because of the
need to ensure coherence with other decisions.
In addition, the COP requested the SBSTA to develop technical standards for the purpose of ensuring
the accurate, transparent and efficient exchange of data between national registries, the clean
development mechanism registry and the transaction log.
COP 8, COP 9, COP 10 and COP 11
During these COPs Parties finalized the remaining work of the guidelines under Articles 5, 7 and 8 of
the Kyoto Protocol.
CMP 1 held in Montreal, Canada, in November-December 2005 adopted the Marrakesh Accords as well as
the draft CMP decisions that were negotiated after COP 7.
The CMP 1 adopted the following decisions relating to Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol:
Modalities for the accounting of assigned amounts under Article 7, paragraph 4 of the Kyoto
Standard electronic format for reporting Kyoto Protocol units
Guidelines for the preparation of the information required under Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol
Guidelines for national systems under Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Kyoto Protocol
Good practice guidance and adjustments under Article 5, paragraph 2 of the Kyoto Protocol
Issues relating to adjustments under Article 5, paragraph 2 of the Kyoto Protocol
Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol
Terms of service for lead reviewers
Issues relating to the implementation of Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol – 1 (Training
programme for members of expert review teams)
Issues relating to the implementation of Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol – 2 (Confidential