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International bunker fuels under the SBSTA
 
At its first meeting in 1995 (Berlin, Germany, March/April 1995), the Conference of the Parties (COP) requested the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advise (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) to address the issue of allocation and control of emissions from international bunker fuels and to report on this work to COP 2 (Decision pdf-icon 4/CP.1, f).


Chronological development under the SBSTA
 

The SBSTA at its thirty-seventh meeting (Doha, Qatar, November/December 2012), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue.

The SBSTA at its thirty-sixth meeting (Bonn, Germany, May 2012), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/2, paragraphs 82-85).

The SBSTA at its thirty-fifth meeting (Durban, South Africa, December 2011), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2011/5, paragraphs 58 - 60).

The SBSTA at its thirty-fourth meeting (Bonn, Germany, June 2011), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2011/2, paragraphs 69-73).

The SBSTA at its thirty-third meeting (Cancun, Mexico, December 2010), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2010/13, paragraphs 60-64).

The SBSTA at its thirty-second meeting (Bonn, Germany, May 2010), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2010/6, paragraphs 55-59).

The SBSTA at its thirty-first meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, December 2009), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them and IMO to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2009/8, paragraphs 47-51).

The SBSTA at its thirtieth meeting (Bonn, Germany, June 2009), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2009/3, paragraphs 88-92).

The SBSTA, at its twenty-ninth meeting (Poznan, Poland, December 2008), noted the information received from the secretariats of ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and invited them to report, at future sessions of the SBSTA, on the outcomes of their work on this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2008/13, paragraphs 68-72).

The SBSTA, at its twenty-eighth session (Bonn, Germany, June 2008), received information from the secretariats of the ICAO and the IMO on relevant work and recognized the need to continue the cooperation and the exchange of information between ICAO, IMO and the UNFCCC, and agreed to continue to receive information from ICAO and IMO on relevant work in order to enable Parties to exchange views on this information during its next three sessions. The SBSTA agreed to further consider this agenda item at its thirty-second session (FCCC/SBSTA/2008/6, paragraphs 114-119).

At SBSTA twenty-seven (Bali, Indonesia, December 2007), Parties agreed to continue its consideration of this issue at its twenty-eighth session (FCCC/SBSTA/2007/16, paragraphs 77-78).

At SBSTA twenty-six (Bonn, Germany, May 2007), Parties agreed to continue its consideration of this issue at its twenty-seventh session (FCCC/SBSTA/2007/4, paragraphs 67-68).

At SBSTA twenty-five (Nairobi, Kenya, November 2006 ), Parties agreed to continue its consideration of this issue at its twenty-sixth session (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/11, paragraphs 102-103).

At SBSTA twenty-four (Bonn, Germany, May 2006 ), Parties agreed to continue its consideration of this issue at its twenty-fifth session (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/5, paragraphs 71-73).

At SBSTA twenty-three (Montreal, Canada, November/December 2005), Parties did not complete its consideration of the issues under this agenda sub-item and agreed to continue its consideration at SBSTA’s twenty-fourth session (FCCC/SBSTA/2005/10, paragraphs 44-47).

At the twenty-second meeting of the SBSTA (Bonn, Germany, May 2005), ICAO provided additional information contained in document FCCC/SBSTA/2005/MISC.4 and made presentations (ICAO introductory presentation, AERO Modelling System and System for assessing Aviations Global Emission (SAGE)) that helped to clarify the information in this document. The SBSTA discussed methodological issues relating to emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transport (FCCC/SBSTA/2005/MISC.6). Parties could not agree on substantial conclusions at this session and agreed to continue its consideration of these issues at its twenty-third session (FCCC/SBSTA/2005/4, paragraphs 22-26).

In response to the request by the SBSTA at its twenty-first meeting, the UNFCCC secretariat prepared a document on ‘Information on greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and maritime transport’ (FCCC/SBSTA/2005/INF.2) which updates document FCCC/SBSTA/2003/INF.3.

At the twenty-first meeting of the SBSTA (Buenos Aires, Argentina, December 2004), Parties considered the conclusions of the two expert meetings organized by ICAO and IMO and other issues raised in document FCCC/SBSTA/2004/INF.5 and requested the secretariat to prepare, for the next session of the SBSTA, information on methodological issues to update document FCCC/SBSTA/2003/INF.3.

At SBSTA 20 (Bonn, Germany, June 2004), Parties did not finalize their consideration of the issues raised in document FCCC/SBSTA/2004/INF.5 and decided to consider them further at SBSTA 21 (FCCC/SBSTA/2004/6, paragraphs 34-37).

In response to the mandate from SBSTA 18, ICAO and IMO, in consultation with the UNFCCC secretariat, organized two expert meetings (7-8 April 2004, Montreal, Canada and 21 April 2004, London, United Kingdom) to address methodological issues relating to the estimation and reporting of GHG emissions data from international aviation and maritime transport. Based on these workshops the secretariat prepared a document ‘Methodological issues relating to emissions from international aviation and maritime transport’ (FCCC/SBSTA/2004/INF.5) to facilitate consideration by the SBSTA, at its twentieth session.

At SBSTA 19 (Milan, Italy, December 2003), there was a substantial discussion relating to the need for emissions data that is reflected in a request to ICAO to encourage the developers of two models (AERO2K and SAGE) to complete these models as soon as possible. The SBSTA further recognized the importance of reliable inventory data for further work on the implementation of decision pdf-icon 2/CP.3 and agreed to continue consideration of inventory issues relating to this decision at its twenty-second session.

In response to the request by the SBSTA, the UNFCCC secretariat prepared a technical paper on ‘Compilation of data on emissions from international aviation’ (FCCC/TP/2003/3).

The SBSTA, at its eighteenth session (Bonn, Germany, June 2003) welcomed the information provided by ICAO and IMO and expressed their appreciation for the cooperation of ICAO with the UNFCCC secretariat. The SBSTA invited ICAO and IMO, in consultation with the UNFCCC secretariat, to organize two expert meetings before SBSTA 20. The objective of these meetings will be to address options to improve the methodologies for estimating and reporting emissions from international aviation and maritime transport as an input to the work under way by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the revision of the guidelines for preparing national GHG inventories under the relevant provisions of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol (FCCC/SBSTA/2003/10, paragraphs 27-29).

Prior to SBSTA 18, ICAO and IMO, in consultation with the UNFCCC secretariat, organized two expert meetings (27-28 February 2003, Montreal, Canada and 6 March 2003, London, United Kingdom) to discuss methodological aspects relating to the compilation and reporting of GHG inventory data from international and domestic aviation and maritime transport. Based on these workshops the secretariat prepared a document on ‘Emissions resulting from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transportation’ (FCCC/SBSTA/2003/INF.3) to facilitate consideration by the SBSTA, at its eighteenth session.

The SBSTA, at its sixteenth meeting (Bonn, Germany, June 2002) reaffirmed the conclusions adopted at its fifteenth session and decided to consider the methodological aspects related to the reporting of emissions based upon fuel sold to ships and aircraft engaged in international transportation at SBSTA 18. It also invited ICAO and IMO to report on their activities to this regard at that session (FCCC/SBSTA/2002/6, paragraph 52 b-c).

At its fifteenth meeting (Marrakesh, Morocco, November/December 2001), the SBSTA noted the provided information (FCCC/SBSTA/2001/5 and FCCC/SBSTA/2001/5/Add.1) relating to emissions resulting from fuel used in international aviation and marine transportation, on the use of Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, Part I: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories. Further, the SBSTA adopted conclusions that strengthen the cooperation between ICAO, IMO and the UNFCCC secretariat (FCCC/SBSTA/2001/8, paragraphs 16-19).

At SBSTA 14 (Bonn, Germany, July 2001), Parties considered a report, prepared in collaboration with the ICAO and IMO secretariats, providing an overview and update of activities by ICAO, IMO and the UNFCCC secretariat relating to emissions from bunker fuels (FCCC/SBSTA/2001/INF.1). The SBSTA took note of the report, and decided to consider the matter further at SBSTA 15 (FCCC/SBSTA/2001/2, paragraphs 13-15).

At SBSTA 12 (Bonn, Germany, June 2000), Parties were provided with copies of the ‘IPCC Report on Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories’ which contains information on methods to estimate bunker fuel emissions. The SBSTA noted the information provided by ICAO and IMO and highlighted the importance of coordination by Parties at the national level of their work on the issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2000/10, paragraphs 43-45).

At SBSTA 11 (Bonn, Germany, October/November 1999), Parties stressed the importance of cooperation with ICAO and IMO. The SBSTA also affirmed that the quality of reporting by Annex I Parties on bunker fuel emissions needs to be improved, and that the reporting guidelines on annual inventories under development at that time  would contribute to such improvement (FCCC/SBSTA/1999/6/Add.1). COP 5 adopted decision pdf-icon 18/CP.5 that requested the secretariat to further develop its cooperation with the secretariats of ICAO and IMO and requested the SBSTA to continue its current work on methodological issues related to reporting on bunker fuel emissions (FCCC/CP/1999/6/Add.1).

In response to the request by the SBSTA, the UNFCCC secretariat prepared a paper on ‘Ways to further strengthen the exchange of information between the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization and UNFCCC’ (FCCC/SBSTA/1999/INF.9). As requested by the SBSTA the UNFCCC secretariat compiled submissions by Parties on how to proceed with this issue as well as on the informal paper and the IPCC Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere in a miscellaneous document (FCCC/SBSTA/1999/MISC.8).

At SBSTA 10 (Bonn, Germany, May/June 1999), Parties noted with appreciation the information provided by ICAO and IMO on their relevant work and welcomed a ‘Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere’ prepared by the IPCC on request of ICAO. Further, on the basis of document FCCC/SBSTA/1999/INF.4, the SBSTA noted that the data on emissions from international bunker fuels provided by Annex I Parties are often incomplete and inconsistent, it noted that further methodological work is needed to ensure consistent and transparent inventories. In this context, the SBSTA requested ICAO and IMO to provide data and expertise on the issue and requested Annex I Parties to provide, in a transparent manner, emission data and information on methods used to estimate emissions. The SBSTA invited the secretariat to explore ways to further strengthen the exchange of information between ICAO, IMO and the SBSTA. Finally, the SBSTA invited Parties to submit their views on how to proceed with this issue as well as on the informal paper and the IPCC Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (FCCC/SBSTA/1999/6, paragraphs 42-45).

In response to the request by the SBSTA, the UNFCCC secretariat prepared a paper on methodological issues on ‘Emissions resulting from fuel used for international transport’ (FCCC/SBSTA/1999/INF.4) and an informal paper addressing ‘Methods used to collect data and to estimate and report emissions from international bunker fuels’ for consideration by the SBSTA at its tenth meeting.

The SBSTA at its ninth session (Buenos Aires, Argentina, November 1998) requested the secretariat to provide information to the SBSTA, at its tenth session, on emissions resulting from fuel sold to ships or aircraft engaged in international transport. It further took note of the information provided by ICAO and requested the secretariat to invite representatives of ICAO and IMO to report on their work to the SBSTA at its tenth session(FCCC/SBSTA/1998/9, paragraph 51i). Hereafter, ICAO and IMO continuously reported on their activities regarding GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport to the SBSTA.

At its eighth meeting (Bonn, Germany, June 1998), the SBSTA agreed to invite ICAO and IMO to report progress on their work relevant to the Convention and to provide reports to the SBSTA. Further at this meeting, the SBSTA noted with appreciation the initiated work by the IPCC on a special report on aviation and the global atmosphere (FCCC/SBSTA/1998/6, paragraph 27).

At COP 3 (Kyoto, Japan, December 1997), by decision pdf-icon 1/CP.3, Parties adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which in Article 2, paragraph 2 states that the Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of GHG emissions not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from aviation and marine bunker fuels, working through the ICAO and the IMO, respectively.
The COP, by decision pdf-icon 2/CP.3, also urged the SBSTA to further elaborate on the inclusion of these emissions in the overall GHG inventories of Parties. Further, in its decision 2/CP.3, the COP recalls that, under the 'Revised 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change', emissions from international bunker fuels should not be included in national totals, but should be reported separately. Whilst GHG emissions from international maritime transport are not counted towards Parties’ national GHG totals, GHG emissions from domestic shipping are included in a Party’s national total under the Convention.

At SBSTA 7 (Bonn, Germany, October 1997), a representative of ICAO delivered a statement to the SBSTA (FCCC/SBSTA/1997/14, paragraph 12).

At its sixth session (Bonn, Germany, July/August 1997) the SBSTA invited the secretariats of ICAO and IMO to provide reports on their relevant work to future sessions of the SBSTA and called upon Parties to work through ICAO and IMO to address emissions from international bunker fuels (FCCC/SBSTA/1997/6, paragraph 45).

At SBSTA’s fourth session (Geneva, Switzerland, December 1996), Parties noted that there are three separate issues related to international bunker fuels:
i) Adequate and consistent inventories;
ii) Allocation of emissions; and
iii) Control options.
As laid out in document FCCC/SBSTA/1996/9/Add.1, the SBSTA took note of the eight options for allocation of bunker fuels and considered that five of these options should form the basis for further work on this issue. At this session the SBSTA noted the role of ICAO and IMO in addressing the control of emissions from international bunker fuels, and the opportunity for Parties to work through these bodies. Further, the SBSTA encouraged Parties to apply the revised 1996 IPCC guidelines on international bunker fuels and to report these emissions accordingly in two separate entries in their national communications (FCCC/SBSTA/1996/20, paragraph 55).

At the third meeting of the SBSTA (Geneva, Switzerland, July 1996) ICAO delivered a statement in which the organization indicated willingness support the IPCC in the development of a special report on aviation, if the IPCC would prepare such a report for the SBSTA. The Chairman of the SBSTA noted the significance of such a report, and indicated that he would bring this to the attention of the IPCC (FCCC/SBSTA/1996/13, paragraph 61).

The UNFCCC secretariat prepared a paper that, inter alia addressed international bunker fuels and included eight options for the allocation and control of emissions from international bunker fuels for consideration by the SBSTA at its fourth meeting (FCCC/SBSTA/1996/9/Add.1 and FCCC/SBSTA/1996/9/Add.2).

The SBSTA at its second session (Geneva, Switzerland, February/March 1996) requested the secretariat to prepare a report suggesting possible revisions to the guidelines for preparation of first communications by Annex I Parties including inter alia the issue of international bunker fuels (FCCC/SBSTA/1996/8, paragraphs 61-62).

The SBSTA at its first meeting (Geneva, Switzerland, August/September 1995) considered the allocation and control of emissions from international bunker fuels, and requested the secretariat to provide an options paper on that subject to the SBSTA for consideration at a future session (FCCC/SBSTA/1995/3, paragraph 37).

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