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International bunker fuels under the AWG-LCA
 
At its thirteenth session (Bali, Indonesia, December 2007), the COP instructed the AWG-LCA to develop its work programme at its first session in a coherent and integrated manner, and invited Parties to submit to the secretariat their views regarding the work programme. International bunker fuels has been a subject of discussions under the AWG-LCA in the context of paragraph 1b(iv) of the Bali Action Plan, cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions. In this context, various options have been put forward for discussions by Parties.
 
Chronological development under the AWG-LCA
 

At the second part of the fifteenth session of the AWG-LCA, Parties continued their work on cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions (agenda item 3biv). Throughout the meeting, Parties could not bridge their diverging views on how to address cooperative sectoral approaches and sector specific actions, including emissions from international aviation and maritime transport. The proposed compromise text by the chair of the AWG-LCA (FCCC/AWGLCA/2012/L.4) was rejected by Parties which is why the agenda item on sectoral approaches is not part of Decision 1/CP.18, the agreed outcome pursuant to the Bali Action Plan.

At the fifteenth session of the AWG-LCA (Bonn, Germany, May 2012), Parties continued their work on cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions (agenda item 3biv) on the basis of decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 74 and 78, which includes the work on emissions from international bunker fuels. Work on this agenda item is captured in the pdf-icon pdf-icon report by the facilitator to the LCA Contact Group.

At the resumed fourteenth session of the AWG-LCA (AWG-LCA 14-4) in Durban (South Africa, November/December 2011) international bunker fuels was negotiated under AWG-LCA agenda item 3.2.4 (Sectoral approaches) together with a general framework for sectoral approaches and agriculture. The negotiations on emissions from international bunker fuels started on basis of the pdf-icon Facilitator’s note that included the options from the AWG-LCA 14-3 session in Panama. Parties could agree on a way forward for the AWG-LCA agenda item 3.2.4 and agreed to include a text on this agenda item in the pdf-icon Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA (p.14, paragraphs 74-78). For international aviation and maritime transport, the Conference of the Parties agreed to continue its consideration of issues related to addressing emissions from international aviation and maritime transport (p. 14, paragraph 78).

During the third part of the fourteenth meeting of the AWG-LCA (Panama City, Panama, October 2011), Parties further elaborated on different options how to address emissions from international aviation and maritime transport under the UNFCCC process. Nine different options address are captured in the pdf-icon Facilitator’s note (166 kB) .

At the second part of the fourteenth meeting of the AWG-LCA (Bonn, Germany, June 2011), Parties agreed to address international bunker fuels under AWG-LCA agenda item 3.2.4 and brought forward six options on how to address emissions from international aviation and maritime transport under the UNFCCC process. These options are reflected in: ‘pdf-icon note by the facilitator (155 kB) ’.

At the first part of the fourteenth meeting of the AWG-LCA (Bangkok, Thailand, April 2011), Parties adopted an agenda according to the structure of the Bali Action Plan, which also included cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions under agenda item 3.2.4 (FCCC/AWGLCA/2011/L.1).

At the thirteenth session of the AWG-LCA (Cancun, Mexico, December 2010), Parties were negotiating international bunker fuels on the basis of document FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/14. Due to diverging views on the way forward, Parties could not agree on an outcome for cooperative sectoral approaches, including international bunker fuels. Hence, the Cancun Agreement (1/CP.16) contains no reference to GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport (Report of the session).

The AWG-LCA, at its eleventh session (Bonn, Germany, August 2010), the Chair of the AWG-LCA introduced document FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/8, containing the second iteration of the text to facilitate negotiations among Parties (FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/11). Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport were addressed  in the context of paragraph 1b(iv) of the Bali Action Plan, cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions (paragraphs 55-56). During this session Parties were extensively working on international bunker fuels. This work is reflected in document FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/14 (paragraphs 55-56).

At its tenth session (Bonn, Germany, June 2010), the chair of the AWG-LCA issued a Text to facilitate negotiations among Parties, which laid out to address international bunker fuels on the basis of document FCCC/CP/2010/2.

At the eighth session of the AWG-LCA (Copenhagen, Denmark, December 2009), relevant text on international bunker fuels contained in the report of AWG-LCA 7 served as a basis for bilateral informal consultations held by the co-facilitators with Parties. The text prepared by the co-facilitators as a result of their consultations in the context of the AWG-LCA was distributed to Parties at a meeting of a contact group on Long-term Cooperative Action, in the context of the COP, on 17 December 2009. Such text has been included in a document which presents the work undertaken by the COP at its fifteenth session on the basis of the report of the AWG-LCA (FCCC/CP/2010/2).

In response to the invitation by the AWG-LCA, the secretariat compiled the latest available non-papers produced by the chairs, co-chairs and facilitators of the groups during the seventh session of the AWG-LCA as an annex to the report of the seventh session. The last  non-paper (pdf-icon non-paper 49 (149 kB) ) addressing international bunker fuels was included in the compiled text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/14, pages 101-102).

The AWG-LCA, at the two parts of its seventh session ((Bangkok, Thailand, September/October 2009 and Barcelona, Spain, November 2009), continued discussions on international bunker fuels in the context of cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions (paragraph 1b(iv) of the Bali Action Plan). During the two parts of AWG-LCA 7, three non-papers were prepared by the facilitator on cooperative sectoral approaches (non-papers 2, 17 and 49), with each non-paper superseding the previous one. The AWG-LCA requested the secretariat to compile the texts contained in the latest available non-papers produced by the chairs, co-chairs and facilitators of the groups during the seventh session of the AWG-LCA into an annex to the report on its seventh session for facilitating negotiations of the AWG-LCA at its eighth session (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/14, paragraph 39).

In preparation for the first part of the seventh session of the AWG-LCA the facilitator (in his role of helping the Chair of the AWG-LCA to support Parties) prepared background material and relevant additional information to help Parties advance discussions on international bunker fuels. (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2/Add.1, page 60 and FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2/Add.2, pages 3-8).

During the subsequent informal meeting of the AWG-LCA (Bonn, Germany, August 2009), the AWG-LCA undertook further work on the revised negotiating text. However, it did not include discussions specific to international bunker fuels (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2).

During the sixth session of the AWG-LCA (Bonn, Germany, June 2009), Parties provided general comments on structure and content, stated reservations and objections to elements of the negotiating text contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/8, and proposed additions and modifications. This resulted in a revised negotiating text which expanded the options on international bunker fuels(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.1, paragraphs 135-138).

In response to the invitation by the AWG-LCA, its chair prepared a negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/8) International bunker fuels was included in the mitigation chapter, and in the context of cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/8, paragraphs 135-138). This negotiating text included three options, proposed by Parties, for taking action on international bunker fuels.

At the fourth meeting of the AWG-LCA (Poznan, Poland, December 2008) the LCA chair prepared a document summarizing and structuring ideas and proposals on paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan, containing views on international bunker fuels and emissions from international aviation and maritime transport (FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/16/Rev.1).
The AWG-LCA invited its Chair to prepare a negotiating text for consideration at its sixth session in June 2009, taking account of the proceedings of the AWG-LCA at its fifth session (FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/17, paragraph 26).

During the third meeting of the AWG-LCA an in-session workshop was held on cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions, in order to enhance implementation of Article 4, paragraph 1 (c), of the Convention. During this workshop some Parties identified international bunker fuels and emissions from international aviation and marine bunker fuels as one specific sector that could be addressed in the context of the AWG-LCA (FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/CRP.4).Further at this meeting, the AWG-LCA invited its Chair to prepare, under his own responsibility, a document assembling the ideas and proposals presented by Parties on the elements contained in paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan, taking into account the ideas and proposals presented by accredited observer organizations (FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/12, paragraph 27).

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