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»  Experts on Climate Change in El Salvador

REDD-plus schemes in El Salvador: Low profile, friendly fancy dresses and commodification of ecosystems and territories
SUMMARY: The Durban Platform and the Cancun Agreement adopted REDD-plus as an option for climate change mitigation, which was designed to offset emissions from developed countries by reducing emissions from the forestry sector in developing countries, even though the mechanism has serious inherent problems that make it ineffective for climate change mitigation, such as leakage, lack of additionality, temporality and complexities related to measurability. El Salvador has been involved in the issue of REDD-plus through its incorporation into the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) of the World Bank (WB), which was created to  purchase and trade carbon credits directly in the carbon markets or through brokerage funds, such as the Forest Carbon Fund (FCF) to offset emissions from developed countries. Such an approach fosters the commodification of nature through the trading of carbon stored in ecosystems and territories from which indigenous, rural and peasant communities depend for survival. The adoption of REDD-plus in El Salvador would occur in a fashion disconnected from the strategic policy framework on climate change, and without the best technical, scientific and methodological knowledge or the social legitimacy required to ensure its political viability and effective implementation. The lack of such a framework and an appropriate environmental policy for addressing climate change effectively in the country, has led to the implementation of improvised and scattered actions, dissociated from  the legal mandates and commitments under the international climate change treaties, as evidenced by the preparation without consultation by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARN) of the proposal (R-PP) submitted to the FCPF for an eventual REDD-plus strategy, without a previous ex ante analysis of the potential social, economic, political and environmental implications and impacts at local, national and global levels. The proposal has fundamental misconceptions and scientific and technical failings which are insurmountable even under the lax FCPF´s criteria, and which could be summarized in four substantive issues: the "Mitigation based on Adaptation" approach which does not consider climate change and lacks a scientific and methodologically sound basis to properly address adaptation; the weaknesses and gaps in the national strategic policy framework on climate change; the direct link to international trade mechanisms for offsetting emissions from developed countries; and the failure to  establish an information system to monitor and report on the approach and compliance with the seven REDD-plus safeguards. These concerns explain why the REDD-plus proposal for the country would generate increased vulnerability, impacts and maladaptation to climate change, posing serious threats to environmental governance. The disrespect of the safeguards adopted in the multilateral process and the weakening of global efforts to mitigate climate change effectively, which would result from the eventual implementation of the proposed National Strategy for REDD-plus in the country, as has been drawn up by the MARN, legitimize its rejection and the demand to adopt the national strategic framework for comprehensive and effective approach to climate change. 
Full Paper

»  Two scientific papers

Biodiversity co-benefits of policies to reduce forest-carbon emissions

Win–win REDD+ approaches belie carbon–biodiversity trade-offs

»  The Monitoring Matters Network

At the heart of REDD: a role for local people in monitorin forests?
SUMMARY: REDD+ implementation challenges include linking remote sensing and national forest inventories of carbon stocks, to local implementation and measuring carbon loss from forest degradation. Community-based forest monitoring can help overcome these challenges. This analysis shows that local people can collect forest condition data of comparable quality to trained scientists, at half the cost. Empowering communities to own and monitor carbon stocks could provide a rapid and cost-effective way of absorbing carbon dioxide emissions, while potentially contributing to local livelihoods and forest biodiversity conservation.
Full Paper / web link

Environmental monitoring: the scale and speed of implementation varies according to the degree of peoples involvement
SUMMARY: Solutions to the global environmental crisis require scientific knowledge and responses spanning different spatial scales and levels of societal organization; yet understanding how to translate environmental knowledge into decision-making and action remains limited. This analysis examined 104 published environmental monitoring schemes to assess whether participation in data collection and analysis influences the speed and scale of decision-making and action. The results show that involving local stakeholders in monitoring enhances management responses at local spatial scales, and increases the speed of decision-making to tackle environmental challenges at operational levels of resource management.
Full Paper / web link

»  Institute of Green Economy (IGREC): The REDD Market Should Not End Up a Subprime House of Cards: Introducing a New REDD Architecture for Environmental Integrity

ABSTRACT: Carbon leakages can wipe away mitigation benefits under REDD achieved in a country. So far no REDD mechanism has been proposed that can separate good credits of true mitigation value from those that could possibly be stained by leakages. The greatest concern of investors in such a market would be the fear of buying goods whose real worth is far less than that paid for, much like the subprime housing crisis of 2008 when good financial products of low risks were bundled with those with high risks and sold as composite products for leveraging, a financial innovation that brought doom to the participating banks. This paper proposes a new REDD Plus architecture that would ensure that instead of every REDD credit becoming suspect the market would discount only those credits that have a higher probability of leakages unless the monitoring system is considered robust enough to allay the fears and would thus be able to ensure environmental integrity by punishing lapses in specific cases. This will also permit simultaneous operation of Fund based mechanism within same national boundaries in distinct geographical areas and enable incorporation of forestry projects under the CDM within the REDD framework.
Full Paper / web link

»  Tebtebba (Indigenous Peoples' International Centre for Policy Research and Education) Reports and Publications

These studies covered the drivers of deforestation and existing national laws and policies on forests, land tenure, indigenous peoples and their rights, climate change and REDD+ from nine countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The reports also provided recommendations on how to address issues and challenges affecting forests and indigenous peoples
State of Forest, Policy Environment and Ways Forward

This book contains the case studies on traditional forest resource management of indigenous peoples in three countries: Kenya, Nicaragua and Indonesia. One vital element about these case studies is that the those who did the research and wrote the cases were indigenous researchers, themselves.
Sustaining and Enhancing Forests Through Traditional Resource Management

This is the report of the Asia Summit on Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples that was organized by Tebtebba and AMAN (Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara) of Indonesia. The summit was held in Bali, Indonesia last 24 - 27 February 2009 as part of the series of regional summits by indigenous peoples that culminated in the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change in April 2009.
Asia Summit on Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: Report of the Summit

Composed of 5 training modules, this training course on Indigenous Peoples, Climate Change and REDD+ aims to enhance the capacity of indigenous leaders, educators and organizers to engage in national and international processes and mechanisms, particularly REDD+ and its repercussions.
Climate Change, REDD+ and Indigenous Peoples: Training Course for Indigenous Peoples

The popular Guide on Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples, 2nd Edition, aims to enhance indigenous peoples knowledge on climate change so that indigenous peoples will be better equipped to participate more effectively in shaping relevant policies and actions taken to address this issue. It also aims to enlighten non-indigenous peoples on our own experiences and perspectives on climate change. This Second Edition includes updates on Part III: Climate Change Mitigation Measures: Impacts on Indigenous Peoples; Part IV: Adapting to Climate Change: Indigenous Peoples Show the Way; Part V: REDD/REDD+ and Indigenous Peoples; Part VIII: The Current State of Climate Change Negotiations; and Part IX: Ways Forward: The UNDRIP, the Human Rights Based Approach and the Ecosystem Approach. Publisher: Tebtebba (Indigenous Peoples' International Centre for Policy Research and Education). Date of Publication: September 2009.
Guide on Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples, 2nd edition

»  Conservation International publication – What is needed to make REDD-plus work on the ground? Lessons learned from pilot forest carbon initiatives

In this report, Conservation International provides an in-depth analysis of 12 pilot forest carbon initiatives in which it has been involved as partner, in order to provide preliminary insights into what will be needed to make REDD+ work on the ground.

Located in nine countries throughout Asia, Latin America and Africa, these initiatives represent a broad range of geographic, socioeconomic and biophysical conditions and provide a unique opportunity to examine the challenges and opportunities of designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives in different countries.

By providing a holistic and fine-scale analysis of Conservation International’s experiences in implementing reforestation and REDD+ initiatives on the ground, this study reveals many of the real-world challenges that project managers and policy makers will likely face as they design and implement new REDD+ initiatives , and provide practical recommendations of how to enhance the chances of successful design and implementation in the field that result in the provision of climate, community and biodiversity benefits.

Download FULL report:  What is needed to make REDD+ work on the ground? Lessons learned from pilot forest carbon initiatives (PDF - 1.78MB)


  • English: What is needed to make REDD+ work on the ground?
    Executive Summary + Recommendations (PDF - 874 KB)
  • Spanish: ¿Qué se necesita para hacer REDD+ funcionar en el campo?
    Resumen Ejecutivo + Recomendaciones (PDF - 917 KB)
  • Portuguese: O que é necessário para fazer o REDD+ funcionar em campo?
    Sumário Executivo + Recomendações (PDF - 935 KB)
  • French: De quoi le mécanisme REDD+ a-t-il besoin pour fonctionner sur le terrain?
    Synthèse + Recommandations (PDF - 952 KB)
  • Chinese: 促使REDD+机制切实发挥作用,尚有哪些欠缺?
    执行纲要及建议 (PDF - 1.93 MB)

»  RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests – Publications on Forests, Climate Change and REDD+

RECOFTC's publications cover a range of topics, themes, and geographies under the umbrella of devolved forest management and are developed often in collaboration with partners and other contributors. They include research and analysis papers, workshop and conference reports, training manuals, case studies, policy briefs and more.

Forests and climate change after Durban: An Asia-Pacific perspective   web link

Linking Adaptation and Mitigation through Community Forestry: Case Studies from Asia   web link

The United Nations climate change talks in Cancun changed the shape of REDD+ negotiations and global forest policies. What effect will the decisions from the talks have on forests and forest users in Asia and the Pacific? Eleven climate change and forestry experts gathered to reflect on these issues, and this booklet summarizes their responses to 12 key questions.
Forests and Climate Change After Cancun: An Asia-Pacific Perspective   web link

Following COP15, forestry stakeholders have raised many questions about the meaning of the Copenhagen outcome for people, forests, and forestry. FAO and RECOFTC recently brought together 12 experts in Bali to debate the issue and provide answers to a dozen key questions. A report on this meeting has now been published, entitled: 
Forests and Climate Change after Copenhagen: An Asia-Pacific Perspective  web link

On REDD in Vietnam, RECOFTC has very recently produced a new brief, entitled:
Vietnam: Why REDD+ Needs Local People  web link (Vietnamese language version also available under the below web link)

RECOFTC has produced a number of other REDD briefs and short reports, with most translated into national languages. A list of these publications is available on the RECOFTC website, under:  < >

»  The Forest Dialogue (TFD) – Publications on Investing in REDD-Plus

Over the year 2009, The Forest Dialogue (TFD) has held three international dialogues and one writing workshop on Financing REDD-plus, which engaged 100 leaders from different stakeholder groups.  These stakeholders include indigenous peoples, family forest owners, industry, academics, IGOs, ENGOs, trade unions, social NGOs, forest industry, forest and carbon investors, retailers and government representatives.  The TFD's dialogue initiative on Financing REDD-plus focused on the elements of a framework for REDD financing and implementation.  The consensus reached during this initiative has led to 26 recommendations launched on October 1st, 2009, during the UNFCCC Climate Change Talks in Bangkok, Thailand.  The recommendations were fed into the processes of the Informal Working Group on Interim Finance for REDD+ (IWG-IFR).  A more extensive report on TFD’s initiative on investing in REDD-plus was published in June, 2010, which captures not only the 26 recommendations but also other key issues that have been discussed under this stream of dialogue.

TFD Review - Investing in REDD-plus - Consensus Recommendations on Frameworks for the Financing of REDD-plus

The publications below have two components:  Executive Summary and Recommendations.  Both components are available in English, French and Spanish.

Investing in REDD-plus, Executive summary of The Forest Dialogue consensus - September 2009
Investing in REDD-plus, Consensus on frameworks for the financing and implementation of REDD-plus
Invirtiendo en REDD-plus, Resumen del Consenso del Diálogo Forestal (TFD) - Septiembre 2009
Invirtiendo en REDD-plus, Consenso sobre marcos generales para el financiamiento e implementación de mecanismos de REDD-plus
Investir dans la REDD-plus, Résumé du consensus atteint par The Forest Dialogue - Septembre 2009
Investir dans la REDD-plus, Consensus sur les cadres de financement et de l'application de la REDD-plus

»  Carbon Planet – White Papers on REDD

The History of REDD policy - Kyoto to Copenhagen
A comprehensive summary of the history of REDD policy, from its roots in the Kyoto Protocol, December 1997, to the final meetings of the AWG-LCA and SBSTA before COP15 in Copenhagen in December 2009.

The white paper discusses the genesis of REDD policy and provides an overview of major turning points in the key issues of contention in international REDD policy:

  • The scope of the definition of reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation;
  • Carbon Accounting for REDD - Measurement, Reporting and Verification;
  • The rights of Indigenous People;
  • Financing options for REDD;
  • Institutional arrangements - Should REDD be a NAMA or project based.

The Carbon Planet REDDiness index
The Carbon Planet 'REDDiness Index' illustrates a country's preparedness to implement sustainable REDD projects combined with the chances of the successful outcome or a REDD project.  This is based on a combination of empirical factors that include:

  • The rate of deforestation;
  • Government policy and planning and
  • Political stability.
 »  Global Canopy Programme (GCP) – The Little REDD Book, third edition

The Little REDD Book is a non-partisan guide to governmental and non-governmental proposals for REDD, published by the Global Canopy Programme (GCP). The book, which has been compiled in collaboration with the Prince's Rainforest Project and other key forest stakeholders, presents thirty-three REDD proposals in a simple, non-technical language. 

The Little REDD Book has recently been updated and the third edition of the book is now available.  Other language versions of the book in Bahasa Indonesia, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Mandarin are available at: 
< >

For more information on the Little REDD Book or on the GCP, contact Charlie Parker:  < > 
or visit  < >

 » Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD) – REDD-plus briefing paper for Copenhagen (English, French, Spanish)

FIELD has prepared a REDD-plus briefing paper for negotiators from developing countries in advance of the UN Copenhagen Climate Change Conference (7–18 December 2009).  Previous papers with more background about the REDD-plus negotiations can also be found at FIELD's website, including 'Quick Tips' for new negotiators.

All documents are available in English, French and Spanish at:
< >

FIELD also aims to respond to queries related to the international REDD-plus negotiations from developing country negotiators ahead of the Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen.  Contact:  Joy Hyvarinen, FIELD Director, at:
< >.

FIELD is providing this information on a neutral, non-partisan basis to interested developing countries.  This project is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

 » Pro Natura - Friends of the Earth Switzerland – Paper on REDD, Biodiversity, Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

Guidelines and eligibility criteria for REDD on biodiversity and on Indigenous Peoples and local communities
This paper by Pro Natura - Friends of the Earth Switzerland considers REDD and suggests guidelines as well as eligibility criteria with regard to biodiversity, indigenous peoples and local communities.

For more information, visit < > or contact Friedrich Wulf at < > 

 » Keith, H., Mackey, B. and Lindenmayer, D. – Re-Evaluation of Forest Biomass Carbon Stocks and Lessons from the World's Most Carbon-Dense Forests

This journal article is freely available on the website of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  To access the article, visit:  < >

For any questions on this article, contact Brendan Mackey:  < >

 » Locke, H., Mackey, B. – Considering the Synergies Between Protecting Forest Carbon and Biodiversity

In an article which is soon to be published in the International Journal of Wilderness the authors Harvey Locke and Brendan Mackey consider the scientific case for the synergies between protecting forest carbon and biodiversity.  The title of this article is:

The Nature of Climate Change - Reunite International Climate Change Mitigation Efforts with Biodiversity Conservation and Wilderness Protection

For any questions on this article, contact Brendan Mackey:  < >

 » Collaborative Modeling Initiative – Comparing REDD Mechanism Design Options with an Open Source Economic Model

The below manuscript in review contains a full description of the OSIRIS model and research comparing a broad range of REDD reference level design options.  This research finds that: • REDD can be an effective and efficient source of emissions reductions; • Extending REDD incentives to countries with historically low deforestation rates through higher-than-historical reference levels can prevent leakage to those countries, making the REDD mechanism more effective overall.  This research is a product of the Collaborative Modeling Initiative on REDD Economics, a collaboration between Conservation International, the Environmental Defense Fund, the Woods Hole Research Center, the Terrestrial Carbon Group, and the University of East Anglia.

The analysis was generated with an economic model "OSIRIS", which is freely available on < >, enabling any interested party or individual to model the emissions reductions and financial implications of different REDD reference level options.

Comparing REDD mechanism design options with an open source economic model
For any questions on this manuscript, contact its lead author Jonah Busch: < >

» The Nature Conservancy – An Analysis of Baseline Methodologies for REDD

TNC brief on reference emission levels for REDD+:
Establishing Efficient, Equitable, and Environmentally-sound Reference Emissions Levels for REDD+: A Stock-Flow Approach.

Implications of REDD baseline methods for different country circumstances during an initial performance period is the title of a paper submitted by Rane Cortez, on behalf of The Nature Conservancy. This paper compares the outcomes of seven proposed approaches to determine national baselines for measuring REDD (Compensated Reductions, Joint Research Center, Corridor Approach (V1 and V2), Combined Incentives, Stock-Flow, Terrestrial Carbon Group) as a function of country circumstances, using a retrospective analysis of FAO National Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) forest carbon emissions data.

For more information, contact Bronson Griscom, Forest Carbon Scientist, The Nature Conservancy, at: < >  or visit: < >;

» The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) – Publications Related to REDD

CIFOR advances human wellbeing, environmental conservation and equity by conducting research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries. CIFOR helps ensure that decision-making that affects forests is based on solid science and principles of good governance, and reflects the perspectives of developing countries and forest-dependent people. CIFOR is one of 15 centres within the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.

CIFOR has produced several publications related to REDD (books and infobriefs):
Moving ahead with REDD: Issues, options and implications (book) (2008)
Do trees grow on money?: The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD (book) (2007)
Do trees grow on money?: The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD (Spanish version)
Do trees grow on money?: The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD (Japanese version)
Do trees grow on money?: The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD (infobrief) (2008)
What is the right scale for REDD?: The implications of national, subnational and nested approaches (infobrief) (2008)
Measuring and monitoring forest degradation for REDD: Implications of country circumstances (infobrief) (2008)
Financing REDD: Linking country needs and financing sources  (infobrief) (2008)
The role of REDD in stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations: Lessons from economic models (infobrief) (2008)

For more information on CIFOR and publications related to REDD, please visit:  < >;

» Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – Publications Related to REDD

The OECD in Paris, France, under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group (AIXG) on the UNFCCC, has elaborated the following three documents on REDD:
Financing Mechanisms to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation: Issues in Design and Implementation (2007)
Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Costa Rica and Mexico (2007)
Initial Review of Policies and Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation (2006)
These documents are also available on the OECD website:  < >

The OECD also convened a workshop on 26 March 2008 on Incentives to Capture the Carbon and Biodiversity for Reducing Deforestation: Linkages, Synergies and Limitations. Links to the workshop agenda, all presentations and the Chair's summary are available at:  < >;
For more information on the OECD work on REDD, contact Katia Karousakis at:  < >;

» The Forest Dialogue – Beyond REDD: The Role of Forests in Climate Change

Beginning in December 2007, The Forests Dialogue (TFD) has led a multi-stakeholder dialogue process focused on developing a clear, unified message and common set of principles illustrating the factors and conditions necessary to maximize forests and people’s ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change.  The initiative has involved more than 275 diverse leaders representing all stakeholder groups from around the world.  The group produced a comprehensive consensus Statement on Forests and Climate Change titled “Beyond REDD: the Role of Forests in Climate Change” that lays out 5 guiding principles and over 100 suggested actions for stakeholders including government climate negotiators.  This document also includes 5 Briefing Notes.

For more information on TFD’s Forest and Climate Initiative, please visit our website at
< > or contact TFD’s Executive Director, Gary Dunning, at  < >;

» Winrock International – A Case Study of REDD Intervention in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

‘Identifying optimal areas for REDD intervention: East Kalimantan, Indonesia as a case study’ is the title of a paper by Nancy Harris, Silvia Petrova, Fred Stolle and Sandra Brown. On behalf of Winrock International, this paper was submitted by Nancy Harris.

For more information, contact Nancy Harris at < >; the paper can also be downloaded, free of charge, at < >

» Task Force on REDD and Communities – Briefing Paper on Rights, Equity, Development, Deforestation and Governance by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

A briefing paper on Rights, Equity, Development, Deforestation and Governance by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities was elaborated by the Task Force on REDD and Communities of the IUCN Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy, in collaboration with the Global Forest Coalition, a worldwide coalition of NGOs and Indigenous Peoples' Organisations. The briefing note is a contribution to the debate about policies and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).  It focuses on the potential of governance of forests by indigenous peoples and local communities, and discusses implications of envisaged REDD regimes for local rights.

Feedback on the briefing note is welcome and can be sent to Simone Lovera, co-coordinator of the Task Force,
< >;  visit also  < >;

» Engel, S., Palmer, C. – Scientific Working Paper on REDD

‘“Painting the forest REDD?” Prospects for mitigating climate change through reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation’ is the title of a working paper submitted by Stefanie Engel and Charles Palmer from the Institute of Environmental Decisions at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. This paper was written on the basis of findings from a book that the authors recently co-edited, entitled: 'Avoided deforestation: Prospects for mitigating climate change'.

For more information, contact  Stefanie Engel  < >  or Charles Palmer  < >;

» Cadman, S. – Defining Forests and Forest Degradation

Mr. Sean Cadman is the principal consultant with Cadman & Norwood Environmental Consultancy and works as a forest consultant to The Wilderness Society in Australia. He has submitted two papers with proposals for defining:
Forests under the Kyoto Protocol and
Forest Degradation for an Effective Mechanism to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.

The Author is happy to receive any feedback on these papers:  < >;


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