The Kyoto mechanisms
Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the
Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms.
The Kyoto mechanisms are:
The mechanisms help to stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a
Monitoring emission targets
Under the Protocol, countries' actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept
of the trades carried out.
Registry systems track and record
transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. The UN Climate Change Secretariat, based in Bonn, Germany,
keeps an international transaction log
to verify that transactions are consistent with the rules of the Protocol.
Reporting is done by Parties by submitting annual
emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals.
A compliance system ensures that Parties are
meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so.
The Kyoto Protocol, like the Convention, is
also designed to assist countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. It facilitates the
development and deployment of technologies that can help increase resilience to the impacts of climate
Fund was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are
Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. In the first commitment period, the Fund was financed mainly with a share of
proceeds from CDM project activities. In Doha, in 2012, it was decided that for the second commitment period,
international emissions trading and joint implementation would also provide the Adaptation Fund with a 2
percent share of proceeds.
The road ahead
The Kyoto Protocol is seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that
will stabilize GHG emissions, and can provide the architecture for the future international agreement on
In Durban, the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) was established to
develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention,
applicable to all Parties. The ADP is to complete its work as early as possible, but no later than 2015, in
order to adopt this protocol, legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force at the twenty-first session
of the Conference of the Parties and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020.
More information on targets