seventh session, the Conference of Parties to the Convention (COP) adopted a decision on the compliance
regime for the Kyoto Protocol, which is among the most comprehensive and rigorous in the international
arena. It provides for facilitation, promotion and enforcement of the Protocol’s commitments.
In decision 24/CP.7 of the Marrakesh Accords, the COP adopted
the text containing procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol, and
recognized the need to prepare for the timely operation of these procedures and mechanisms. The basis for
electing members/alternates was also agreed in the same decision. Decision 24/CP.7 was confirmed by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) through
In addition, at its first session, the CMP also decided to consider a proposed amendment to the Protocol in
respect of procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance in terms of Article 18, with a view to making a
decision by its third session. The proposed amendment would make the consequences in decision 27/CMP.1
binding on Parties which ratified it, in conformity with Article 18 of the Protocol. Article 18 stipulates
that any procedures and mechanism under that Article entailing binding consequences shall be adopted by an
amendment to the Protocol. At its second session, the CMP referred the matter to the Subsidiary Body for
Implementation (SBI) for consideration at its twenty-fifth session. The proposed amendment continued to be
considered by the SBI until its thirty-seventh session (Doha, November 2012) when it agreed to recommend
that the CMP complete its consideration of the proposal. Thus, the CMP, at its eighth session, concluded
its consideration of the proposal.
18 of the Kyoto Protocol calls on the CMP to approve, at its first session, "procedures and
mechanisms" to determine and address cases of non-compliance with the Protocol. At its fourth
session (Buenos Aires, November 1998), the COP established a joint working group (JWG) on compliance to
develop a compliance system under the Protocol, with a view to adopting a decision on this issue at COP 6
(The Hague, November 2000). The “Buenos Aires Plan of Action” adopted at COP 4 called for
work on, among other things, the preparations for CMP 1, including the elements of the Protocol related to
compliance ( decision 1/CP.4).
At COP 6 in The Hague, however, Parties were unable to reach agreement on the package of decisions under
the Buenos Aires Plan of Action. In the case of compliance, key outstanding issues included what the
consequences of non-compliance should be and the membership of the Compliance Committee. As with
other issues, the negotiating texts on compliance were forwarded to a resumed session of COP 6 for further
At the second part of its sixth session (COP 6 part II), the COP adopted the Bonn
Agreements on the Implementation of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action, registering political agreement on key
issues, including on compliance. Parties also continued work at COP 6 part II on procedures and
mechanisms relating to compliance. Although considerable progress was made, outstanding points
remained and the draft decision was forwarded to COP 7 (Marrakesh, October/November 2001) for further
elaboration, completion and adoption.
Rules of procedure and
At CMP1, the procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol were adopted (in
decision 27/CMP.1), and the first members and alternate members of the facilitative and enforcement
branches were elected. Later at their first meetings in March 2006, the first chairpersons and
vice-chairpersons of the branches were chosen.
In November 2006, the first annual report of the Committee was presented to the CMP at its second
session. Since then, the Committee has been reporting on its activities at each ordinary session of
the CMP (see the annual
reports submitted by the Committee to the CMP).
At its second session, the CMP approved the rules of procedure for the Committee ( decision 4/CMP.2),
recommended in the Committee’s first annual report. At its fourth session in December 2008, the
CMP adopted amendments to the Committee's rules of procedure ( decision 4/CMP.4).
ninth session in November 2013, the CMP adopted further amendments to the Committee's rules of
procedure ( decision 8/CMP.9
(92 kB) ).
For a general overview of the Compliance Committee’s
functions and proceedings, see the attached illustration:
Members and alternate members of the
procedure of the Compliance Committee of the Kyoto Protocol (143 kB) (informal consolidated version of 3 February 2014)