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ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED JOINTLY(AIJ)

List of Projects

UNIFORM REPORTING FORMAT:
ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED JOINTLY UNDER THE PILOT PHASE

 

The uniform reporting format contained below is to be used in reporting on activities implemented jointly under the pilot phase. It is noted that the reporting should be consistent with decision 5/CP.1 and 8/CP.2 (reproduced in annexes I and II to this reporting format). The SBSTA notes that the uniform reporting format could possibly require revision in the light of experience gained and methodological work conducted under the pilot phase.

A. Description of the AIJ project

1. Title of project: SELCO--Sri Lanka Rural Electrification Project

2. Host country: Sri Lanka

3. Brief project description:

This project involves marketing solar home systems (SHS) as an alternative to the use of kerosene lamps for lighting and the use of diesel-electric charging of lead-acid batteries for powering small home appliances in Sri Lanka. Each SHS will consist of a 12-volt photovoltaic (PV) panel, a battery and charge controller, compact fluorescent lamps, and hardware. The project will expand on successful pilot efforts in Sri Lanka to provide SHS demonstration and installation services, consumer financing, and technical assistance to rural homeowners who lack access to grid electricity. The project team expects to install 812,000 SHS over a period of 10 years, and each SHS will generate GHG benefits for 20 years. The project will generate GHG benefits by displacing kerosene lamps and associated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2).

4. Participants:

Name of Organization or Individual

Country

Renewable Energy Services (RESCO) Asia Limited

Sri Lanka

Solar Electric Light Company (SELCO)

U.S.A.

Trexler and Associates, Inc. (TAA)

U.S.A.

Item

Organization

Name of organization (original language)

or

Name of individual if unaffiliated with any organization

Renewable Energy Service Company Asia, Ltd.

Name of organization (English)

(Same as above)

Acronym (original language)

RESCO

Acronym (English)

(Same as above)

Department

Function(s) within the AIJ project activities

Project administration

Street

8 Visaka Road

City

Colombo 4

State

Post code

Country

Sri Lanka

Telephone

94-1-582876; 94-(0)71-10500

Fax

94-1-503666; 94-1-502572

E-mail

World Wide Web-URL address

Administrative Officer Responsible for the Project

Surname

Wijesooriya

First name, middle name

Priyantha D.

Job title

Direct telephone

94-1-582876; 94-(0)71-10500

Direct fax

94-1-503666; 94-1-502572

Direct e-mail

priyaw@ens.lk

Contact Person for AIJ Activities (if different from the Administrative Officer)

Surname

Trexler

First name, middle name

Dr. Mark C.

Job title

President of Trexler and Associates, Inc.

Direct telephone

503-786-0559

Direct fax

503-786-9859

Direct e-mail

Item

Organization

Name of organization (original language)

or

Name of individual if unaffiliated with any organization

Solar Electric Light Company

Name of organization (English)

(Same as above)

Acronym (original language)

SELCO

Acronym (English)

(Same as above)

Department

Function(s) within the AIJ project activities

Project development, project administration

Street

35 Wisconsin Circle, #510

City

Chevy Chase

State

Maryland

Post code

20815

Country

U.S.A.

Telephone

301-657-1161

Fax

301-657-1165

E-mail

World Wide Web-URL address

Administrative Officer Responsible for the Project

Surname

Williams

First name, middle name

Neville

Job title

Chairman and CEO

Direct telephone

301-657-1161

Direct fax

301-657-1165

Direct e-mail

nwilliams@selco-intl.org

Contact Person for AIJ Activities (if different from the Administrative Officer)

Surname

First name, middle name

Job title

Direct telephone

Direct fax

Direct e-mail

Item

Organization

Name of organization (original language)

or

Name of individual if unaffiliated with any organization

Trexler and Associates, Inc.

Name of organization (English)

(Same as above)

Acronym (original language)

TAA

Acronym (English)

(Same as above)

Department

Function(s) within the AIJ project activities

Project development, project administration

Street

1131 S.E. River Forest Road

City

Portland

State

Oregon

Post code

97267-3513

Country

U.S.A.

Telephone

503-786-0559

Fax

503-786-9859

E-mail

taa@teleport.com

World Wide Web-URL address

Administrative Officer Responsible for the Project

Surname

Trexler

First name, middle name

Dr. Mark C.

Job title

President

Direct telephone

503-786-0559

Direct fax

503-786-9589

Direct e-mail

Contact Person for AIJ Activities (if different from the Administrative Officer)

Surname

First name, middle name

Job title

Direct telephone

Direct fax

Direct e-mail

5. Description of AIJ project activities

Item

Type of Project

Sector(s)

Energy

Primary activity(ies)

Alternative energy generation (solar)

Project Location

Country

Sri Lanka

Exact location (city, state, region)

5 rural villages in Sri Lanka

Key Dates and Current Stage of Project

Project starting date (month/year)

January 1998

Project ending date (month/year)

December 2026

Project lifetime (years)

29

Current stage of project

Mutually agreed

General Project Description and Technical Data

The Sri Lanka Solar Rural Electrification Project will market solar home systems (SHS) as an alternative to the use of kerosene lamps for lighting and use of diesel-electric charging of lead-acid batteries for powering small home appliances. Five villages in southern Sri Lanka that are not currently electrified, or expected to be electrified in the foreseeable future, have been targeted as the site for the project. The project will expand on successful pilot efforts in Sri Lanka to provide SHS demonstration and installation services, consumer financing, and technical assistance to rural homeowners.

Each SHS consists of a 12-volt photovoltaic (PV) panel (20, 35, or 50 watt peak (Wp)), a battery and charge controller, compact fluorescent lamps, and hardware. Typically, a 20-Wp system can power three 8-watt compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) in addition to a radio/cassette player. A 35-Wp system can power four 8-watt CFLs or two 11-watt CFLs in addition to a 14-inch, 12-volt DC, black-and-white television set. A 50-Wp system provides power to the same appliances as a 35-Wp system, but enables the system owner to operate more CFLs or watch television for longer periods. The project team expects to install 41,200 20-Wp systems, 406,000 35-Wp systems, and 364,800 50-Wp systems over a period of 10 years. Each SHS is expected to generate GHG benefits for 20 years.

Although installation of the SHS will displace the need for both kerosene lamps and diesel-charged batteries in the project households, the GHG benefits generated by reducing the use of diesel-electric charging of lead-acid batteries are not estimated in this report due to a lack of data. To calculate GHG benefits resulting from reduced kerosene use, it is assumed that 20- and 35-Wp systems will each replace 3 kerosene lamps, and that 50-Wp systems will each replace 4 kerosene lamps. Over the project’s 29-year lifetime, the resulting GHG benefits will total an estimated 5,684,488 t CO2.

6. Cost

(a) Explanation of methodology for calculating cost data

This information is not yet available.

(b) Cost data–Project development

This information is not yet available.

(c) Cost data–Project implementation

This information is not yet available.

7. Monitoring and verification of AIJ project activities and results

Item

Party(ies) that will be monitoring project activities

SELCO, RESCO-Asia

Party(ies) that will be externally verifying project results

This information is not yet available.

Date when the monitoring plan became (or will become) operational (month/year)

This information is not yet available.

Types of data that will be collected

Household kerosene consumption before and after SHS installation; number of functioning SHS each year.

Description of Monitoring and Verification Activities and Schedule for Implementation

The monitoring provisions consist of the following: (1) development of a tracking database for SHS in operation; (2) surveys every five years of household usage of lights, appliances, and kerosene to identify types and amounts of fuel consumed, determine the CO2 emission coefficients for each fuel type, and calculate CO2 emission estimates; (3) periodic field inspections to verify sales and installation records; and (4) record keeping of payments from and income to the investment fund. Estimates of GHG benefits will be revised based on the periodic survey results.

B. Governmental approval

Item

Please check one of the following.

This report is a first report.

or

This report is an intermediate report.

or

This report is a final report.

Please check one of the following:

This report is a joint report. Letter(s) of approval of this report from the designated national authority of the other Party(ies) involved in the activity is(are) attached in Section J, Annex.

or

This report is a separate report.

Additional comments (if any):

C. Compatibility with, and supportiveness of, national economic development and socioeconomic and environmental priorities and strategies

Compatibility with Economic Development and Socioeconomic and Environmental Priorities

The Sri Lankan government has initiated a southern area development program with the goal of increasing agricultural and industrial productivity and employment in this region. This project will help to achieve this goal because, according to the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB), rural areas in the region will not otherwise gain access to electrical service in the foreseeable future. In addition, this project is compatible with the government’s and the CEB’s shared goal of promoting energy efficiency, renewable energy, and demand-side management.

D. Environmental, social/cultural, and economic impacts of the AIJ project

Non-Greenhouse-Gas Environmental Impacts of the Project

There are several non-GHG environmental impacts that may result from this project, including 1) reducing SO2 and particulate emissions resulting from combustion of fossil fuels to produce electricity that powers batteries, 2) improving air quality within participating households by significantly eliminating kerosene fumes, and 3) reducing fire hazards associated with the use of kerosene lamps.

Social/Cultural Impacts of the Project

There are several possible social and cultural benefits of the project, including contributing to improving literacy due to better light quality, increasing the dissemination of information via radio and television, and stemming urban migration by improving the quality of life in rural areas.

Economic Impacts of the Project

This project may have several economic impacts, including increasing productivity in the region by extending the workday into the evening hours; conserving foreign exchange and causing redirection of capital from production of new power plants to investments in health, education, economic development, and other industry; and creating jobs in the project region in manufacturing, technical supervision, training, management, accounting, and administration.

E. Greenhouse gas impacts of the AIJ project

1. Scenario description

Item

Site Designation

Site number (order of presentation in this report)

1 of 1

Site name/designation

Five rural villages in southern Sri Lanka

Project sector

Energy

Reference Scenario

Primary activity(ies)

Alternative energy generation (solar)

Has the reference scenario changed since the last report? (If yes, explain any changes below.)

Yes

No

This is the first project report.

In the absence of the project, the project developers assume continued consumption of kerosene for household lighting, continued use of diesel-charged batteries, and no significant grid extension into the targeted areas for the 29-year life of the project. The 29-year project lifetime is based on the assumption that the deficit in Sri Lanka’s electric generating capacity is so large that any capacity expansion is likely to serve only urban customers. Baseline GHG emissions over the 29-year project period will result primarily from kerosene lamps, with additional emissions resulting from diesel-based battery charging. The latter are not estimated in this report due to a lack of sufficient data.

Predicted Project Scenario

Primary activity(ies)

Alternative energy generation (solar)

The project will install 812,000 SHS (one per household) in 5 villages in southern Sri Lanka over a 10-year period. Each SHS will operate for 20 years after installation. Electricity generated by the SHS will displace 98% of kerosene used to power household lighting and an unestimated amount of diesel fuel used to charge batteries that currently provide power for the project homes. The lifetime of the project is 29 years.

Actual Project

Primary activity(ies)

Alternative energy generation (solar)

This information is not yet available.

2. GHG emission/sequestration calculation methodology

GHG Emission/Sequestration Calculation Methodology

Site number

1 of 1

Project sector

Energy

Description of Calculation Methodology for the Reference Scenario

The reference scenario is based on emissions that would occur from the combustion of kerosene in lamps of participating households. Reference scenario emissions from diesel-based charging of batteries are not estimated in this report due to a lack of sufficient data.

It is anticipated that SHS will be installed in 812,000 households over a 10-year period beginning in 1998. Thus, reference scenario emissions in any given year are calculated by multiplying the number of currently participating households by the estimated annual emissions per household. The anticipated number of households participating each year, as dictated by the SHS installation schedule, is as follows:

# of SHS by Type # of SHS by Type

Year 20 and 35 Wp 50 Wp Year 20 and 35 Wp 50 Wp

1998 1,200 800 2013 447,200 364,800

1999 7,200 4,800 2014 447,200 364,800

2000 18,200 13,800 2015 447,200 364,800

2001 40,200 31,800 2016 447,200 364,800

2002 73,200 58,800 2017 447,200 364,800

2003 139,200 112,800 2018 446,000 364,000

2004 216,200 175,800 2019 440,000 360,000

2005 293,200 238,800 2020 429,000 351,000

2006 370,200 301,800 2021 407,000 333,000

2007 447,200 364,800 2022 374,000 306,000

2008 447,200 364,800 2023 308,000 252,000

2009 447,200 364,800 2024 231,000 189,000

2010 447,200 364,800 2025 154,000 126,000

2011 447,200 364,800 2026 77,000 63,000

2012 447,200 364,800

Based on Solar Electric Light Fund, Inc. research, it is assumed that 20 Wp or 35 Wp SHS will displace use of 3 kerosene lamps each, while 50 Wp SHS will replace 4 kerosene lamps. Each lamp is assumed to consume 40.15 liters/year (l/yr) of kerosene, generating CO2 emissions at a rate of 2.579 kilograms (kg) CO2/l of kerosene. Therefore, each lamp emits 0.10355 t CO2/yr (= 40.15 l/yr * 2.579 kg CO2/l * 0.001 t/kg). Since baseline emissions for a given year are based on the number of participating households in that year and given the installation schedule provided above, annual reference scenario GHG can be derived using the following equation:

0.10355 t CO2/lamp-yr * [# of functioning SHS * # of kerosene lamps per SHS being replaced]

For example, in the first year of the project, it is anticipated that 1,200 SHS will be installed that will each displace the use of 3 kerosene lamps, and that 800 SHS will be installed that will each displace use of 4 kerosene lamps. Therefore, total reference case CO2 emissions for Year 1 of the project are equal to 704 t CO2/year [= 0.10355 t CO2 /lamp-yr * ((1,200 * 3 lamps) + (800 * 4 lamps))].

Reference case CO2 emissions increase over the first ten years of the project as the number of participating households increases, stay constant over the next ten years, and then decline over the last nine years as units reach the end of their functional lifetime (estimated to be 20 years), and households stop participating. Over the 11-year period during which all 812,000 households are expected to be participating, reference scenario emissions equal 290,023 t CO2/yr [= (0.10355 t CO2 /yr * ((447,200 * 3) + (364,800 * 4))].

Description of Calculation Methodology for the Project Scenario

There are no GHG emissions associated with photovoltaic systems, however, it is estimated that the SHS will be unable to displace two percent of the total consumption of kerosene, as some households may continue to use kerosene lamps in addition to their SHS-powered lighting. Therefore, project scenario emissions for a given year will be equal to two percent of the reference scenario emissions for that year (see calculation above).

Description of Calculation Methodology for the Actual Project

This information is not yet available.

3. GHG emission/sequestration data

(a) Reporting of GHG emissions/sequestration

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(b) Additional information on GHG emissions/sequestration

Indirect or Secondary GHG Impacts (Positive and Negative)

If this project is successful, SELCO may expand the project to the remaining parts of Sri Lanka, which would lead to increased GHG emission savings elsewhere. Successful implementation of this project may also set a positive example that could lead to increased worldwide use of photovoltaic modules.

The manufacture of SHS will generate GHG emissions. These emissions have not been quantified, however, it is estimated that emissions resulting from SHS production will be offset through displace ment of kerosene transport-related emissions.

Factors That Could Cause the Future Loss or Reversal of GHG Benefits

Benefits realized by the operation of SHS cannot be lost or reversed in future years. However, several factors have the potential to cause the GHG benefits of this project to be less than expected. These factors include competition from other power supplies, continued use of kerosene lamps in addition to the SHS-powered lights, suboptimal performance of SHS systems due to equipment failure and inadequate system maintenance, and theft.

Strategy for Reducing the Risk of Future Loss or Reversal of GHG Benefits

The project developer anticipates that households targeted by the project are unlikely to connect to an electric grid in the near future, as Sri Lanka is not likely to extend the grid to these areas because of the high cost of grid extension and the rural nature of the area. In addition, it is likely that hooking to the grid would be more expensive than purchasing and maintaining an SHS.

The following factors should ensure adequate system maintenance: system owners are likely to maintain their SHS in order to make their capital investment in the systems worthwhile; ongoing project oversight is planned in order to address system problems before they can seriously affect performance; and the technician training component of the program will also promote adequate system maintenance.

Currently, there is no strategy for reducing the risk of SHS theft or ensuring that SHS owners do not continue to use their kerosene lamps to the same extent as before SHS installation.

F. Funding of the AIJ project

1. Identification of funding sources

Funding for this project has not yet been secured.

(a) Funding sources for project development

This information is not yet available.

(b) Funding sources for project implementation

This information is not yet available.

2. Assessment of additional funding needs

Current or Planned Activities to Obtain Additional Funding

The project developers are currently seeking funding to establish a US$230 million revolving loan fund that would enable rural Sri Lankans to obtain loans in order to purchase SHS. Potential sources of funding include the World Bank, multilateral development banks, and private-sector organizations.

G. Contribution to capacity building and technology transfer

Contribution to Capacity Building and Technology Transfer

The project will transfer SHS technology to Sri Lanka and, if successful, may give momentum to other SHS projects in the region.

H. Recent developments, technical difficulties, and obstacles encountered

Recent Project Developments

This information is not yet available.

Technical Difficulties and Other Obstacles Encountered

This information is not yet available.

I. Additional information

Additional Information

None.

J. Annex

1. Host country acceptance of the AIJ project

Country/Project Title

Name, Title, and Government Agency of the Designated National Authority

Date of Approval (day/month/year)

Sri Lanka/Solar Rural Electrification Project

J.G. Keerthiratne, Additional Secretary for Secretary, Ministry of Forestry & Environment

4 September 1997

2. Letters of approval of this AIJ project report

See attached letter of concurrence.