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ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED JOINTLY(AIJ)
 

Uniform Reporting Format:

Activities Implemented Jointly Under the Pilot Phase

List of Projects

SUSTAINABLE HEAT AND POWER FOR PUBLIC NETWORKS IN POLAND

TOWN OF SZAMOTULY AIJ

June 2001

UNIFORM REPORTING FORMAT:

ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED JOINTLY UNDER THE PILOT PHASE

The uniform reporting format contained below is to be used in reporting on activities implemented jointly under the pilot phase. It is noted that the reporting should be consistent with decision 5/CP.1 and 8/CP.2. The SBSTA notes that the uniform reporting format could possibly require revision in the light of experience gained and methodological work conducted under the pilot phase.

A. Description of project

A. 1) Title of project:

SUTSAINABLE HEAT AND POWER FOR PUBLIC NETWORKS IN POLAND

A. 2) Participants/actors:

Please fill in one table for each participant/actor. For individuals fill in as from item "Function within activity".

Item Please fill in if applicable

Name of organisation(a):

EDON International B.V.

Name of organisation (English):

EDON International B.V.

Department:

Acronym:

EDON

Acronym (English):

EDON

Function within activity:

Consultant

Street:

Dr. Van Deenweg 136

Post code:

P.O. Box 519

City:

8000 AM Zwolle

Country:

The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 38 852 49 36

Fax:

+ 31 38 852 41 66

E-mail:

WWW-URL:

Contact person (for this activity):

--------------------------------------------------------------

Surname:

Van de Ven

First name, middle name:

Jan-Willem

Job title:

Project officer

Direct tel.:

+ 31 38 455 49 36

Direct fax:

+ 31 38 455 41 66

Direct E-mail:

100733.3021@compuserve.com

a) Organisation includes: institutions, ministries, companies, non-governmental organisations, etc. involved in the activity, i.e. research institutes associated with the project, auditors, government agency closely following the activity.

Item Please fill in if applicable

Name of organisation(a):

Energetyka Poznanska S.A.

Name of organisation (English):

Energetyka Poznanska S.A

Department:

Development Department

Acronym:

EP S.A.

Acronym (English):

EP S.A.

Function within activity:

Local Partner

Street:

F. Nowowiejskiego 11

Post code:

60-967

City:

Poznan

Country:

Poland

Telephone:

(+48 61) 856 13 02

Fax:

(+48 61) 856 11 17

E-mail:

Epsa@epsa.com.pl

WWW-URL:

http://www.epsa.com.pl

Contact person (for this activity):

--------------------------------------------------------------

Surname:

Andruszkiewicz

First name, middle name:

Jerzy

Job title:

Development Director

Direct tel.:

(+48 61) 856 13 02

Direct fax:

(+48 61) 856 11 17

Direct E-mail:

Jerzy.andruszkiewicz@epsa.pl

a) Organisation includes: institutions, ministries, companies, non-governmental organisations, etc. involved in the activity, i.e. research institutes associated with the project, auditors, government agency closely following the activity.

Item Please fill in if applicable

Name of organisation(a):

Cogen Spolka z.o.o.

Name of organisation (English):

Cogen Spolka z.o.o.

Department:

Acronym:

Cogen

Acronym (English):

Cogen

Function within activity:

Local project management; measurements and energy audits; engineering

Street:

F. Nowowiejskiego 11

Post code:

60-967

City:

Poznan

Country:

Poland

Telephone:

(+48 61) 856 13 02

Fax:

(+48 61) 856 11 17

E-mail:

WWW-URL:

http://www.ji4u.com

Contact person (for this activity):

--------------------------------------------------------------

Surname:

Gronski

First name, middle name:

Mariusz

Job title:

Advisor for Management Bord

Direct tel.:

(+48 61) 856 13 02

Direct fax:

(+48 61) 856 11 17

Direct E-mail:

Mariusz.gronski@epsa.pl

a) Organisation includes: institutions, ministries, companies, non-governmental organisations, etc. involved in the activity, i.e. research institutes associated with the project, auditors, government agency closely following the activity.

Item Please fill in if applicable

Name of organisation(a):

Urzad Miasta i Gminy Szamotuly

Name of organisation (English):

Szamotuly Municipality

Department:

Development Department

Acronym:

Acronym (English):

Function within activity:

Realisation of modernisation programme

Street:

Dworcowa 26

Post code:

64-500

City:

Szamotuly

Country:

Poland

Telephone:

(+48 61) 29 20 631

Fax:

(+48 61) 29 20 072

E-mail:

WWW-URL:

Contact person (for this activity):

--------------------------------------------------------------

Surname:

Stanke

First name, middle name:

Janusz

Job title:

Head of Investment Department and Municipal Management

Direct tel.:

(+48 61) 29 20 631

Direct fax:

(+48 61) 29 20 072

Direct E-mail:

a) Organisation includes: institutions, ministries, companies, non-governmental organisations, etc. involved in the activity, i.e. research institutes associated with the project, auditors, government agency closely following the activity.

Item Please fill in if applicable

Name of organisation(a):

Narodowy Fundusz Ochrony Srodowiska i Gospodarki Wodnej

Name of organisation (English):

National Found for Environmental Protection and Water Management

Department:

Executive Office for Climate Convention,

Secretariat-JI

Acronym:

NFOSiGW

Acronym (English):

NFEP&WM

Function within activity:

National Focal Point, Reporting agency

Street:

Konstruktorska 3A

Post code:

02-673

City:

Warsaw

Country:

Poland

Telephone:

(+48 22) 849 22 80; 849 00 80

Fax:

(+48 22) 853 61 92

E-mail:

Jolantak@nfosigw.gov.pl

WWW-URL:

http://www.nfosigw.gov.pl

Contact person (for this activity):

--------------------------------------------------------------

Surname:

Mrs. Galon-Kozakiewicz, Ph.D.

First name, middle name:

Jolanta

Job title:

Secretariat-JI

Direct tel.:

(+48 22) 849 22 80; 849 00 80 ext. 504

Direct fax:

(+48 22) 853 61 92

Direct E-mail:

Jolantak@nfosigw.gov.pl

  1. Organisation includes: institutions, ministries, companies, non-governmental organisations, etc. involved in the activity, i.e. research institutes associated with the project, auditors, government agency closely following the activity.

A. 3) Activity:

Item Please fill in if applicable

General description:

The project concerns energy efficiency in heat and power production – cogeneration by fuel switching from coal to gas. The modernisation scheme includes closing down two coal-fired boiler plants, and the construction of one dual generation installation, along with combining two local heat distribution networks. Gasification of a boiler house in combination with co-generation is demonstrated in Szamotuly town, near Poznan. The cogeneration unit was donated by the Netherlands government to support the introduction of these environmentally more friendly cogeneration units and to support the transfer of technology. The donation is also needed at this stage in the Polish energy market development since this pilot project is not commercially viable yet. The heat produced by the cogeneration unit is used for the supply of hot water to the end-users. The electricity is delivered to the grid, owned by Energetyka Poznanska. In addition to this, environmental measurements concerning the reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gasses and other environmental aspects, have been executed during this project.

Project included:

  • The purchase, installation and operation of the boiler plans;
  • Training for personnel connected with the project, concerning management, servicing of the facilities, environmental protection;
  • Monitoring the environmental impact of the project;
  • Marketing and promotion of the project.

Type of project:a)

Energy efficiency heat production; fuel switching; cogeneration heat and power

Location (exact, e.g. city, region, state):

Municipality of Szamotuly, voivodship Wielkopolskie, in the Poznan region in Poland

Activity starting date:

01-01-1998

Expected activity ending date:

1999

Stage of activity:b)

Mutually agreed / in progress / completed.

The project has been realised in 5 stages:

Stage 1: implementation and management of the project

The stage lasted from the initiation of the project in January, 1998 until its completion, i.e. till the end of 2000. At this stage the aim is to design the installation, the construction of the boiler house and management of the project.

Stage 2: preparation of operation

That stage lasted from January, 1998 until the end of May, 1998. It was treated as a complementary part of Stage 1 and consisted mainly in preparing all formalities (letters of intent, contracts).

Stage 3: the start-up and running of the boiler plant

This stage lasted from the shakedown test of the boiler plant in September, 1998 until the end of this project, i.e. till the end of 2000. It consisted in the monitoring of boiler plant running, and collecting experience for such projects in the future.

Stage 4: training activities

This stage has been conducted from March, 1998 until the end of 2000. It was to cover the following areas: project management, operation of boiler plants and dual generating facilities, marketing, public relations and training in conducting measurements of gas emission, analysis and reporting.

Stage 5: project monitoring

It lasted without interruptions throughout the project, i.e. from 1998 until the end of 2000. The tasks include, apart from monitoring, analysing and reporting, conducting market research and promoting such projects.

Construction works were initiated in August, 1998, and concluded with the start-up of the gas-fired boiler plant on the day of the first supply of grid gas to Szamotu³y, i.e. on October, 7th, 1998. According to the established schedule of the realisation, the power and heat generating unit was to be delivered and installed in October, 1998. For formal reasons connected with the conducted procedure of selling the shares of COGEN, the delivery of the unit to the boiler plant in Szamotu³y was realised in October, 1999.

Lifetime of activity if different from ending date:c)

15 years

Technical data:d)

The following equipment is assumed:

  • Co-generation unit Zantec 230 HR,
  • Two gas boilers with their total heat capacity 2100kW,
  • Heat accumulator with capacity 3,7 MW

The co-generation unit is working in the peak base load with the annual consumption of the installed capacity circa 6500 h/a, whereas the rest of the demand is meeting by gas-fired heaters. The CHP plant is firing by gas GZ-50 with heat of combustion Qc= 39 549 kJ/m3.

a) For example, using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) classification: energy efficiency; renewable energy; fuel switching; forest preservation, restoration or reforestation; afforestation; fugitive gas capture; industrial processes; solvents; agriculture; waste disposal or bunker fuels.

b) Circle the appropriate option.

c) Methodological work will be required to define lifetime of activities.

d) Methodological work will be required to determine for each type of activity what the minimum data requirements are.

A. 4) Cost (to the extent possible):

Item Year 1

1998

Year 2

1999

... Year X

2012

Cost of the project in US$:

465 000

AIJ component in US$:

236 000

US$ per avoided ton of CO2 equivalent:

30

The investment costs appear only in first year of the project, as the project foresees full modernisation of boiler house.

The total budget foreseen for the project is US$ 724 000. The difference between total cost of project and expenses in first year (1998) is US$ 259 000. This amount is allocated to all types of environment monitoring, training, marketing and promotion activity, travelling and other. As a cost of project it is understood only investment costs. The AIJ factor is qualified as investment costs covered by Dutch government.

Describe briefly how costs are determined:

The cost effectiveness of the project (in US$ per reduced ton CO2 equivalent) is calculated according to the methodology used in the Dutch national CO2-reduction plan (annuity write off over the lifetime of the project, with an interest rate of 5 % divided by the amount of reduction per year).

A. 5) Mutually agreed assessment procedures:

Describe the procedures, including name of organisations involveda):
  • NFEP&WM, Executive Office for the Climate Convention, Secretariat-JI: overall responsibility for review of JI projects, co-ordination and communication to the UNFCCC Secretariat, Polish Ministry of Environment (MoE) and foreign donors on matters relating to AIJ/JI activities in Poland;
  • EDON: Project manager; supplier of technology; engineering; financing;
  • COGEN: Local project management; measurements and energy audits; engineering;
  • EP: Human resources; buying electricity;
  • DHC/Municipality of Szamotuly: buying heat; human resources; land and buildings.

a) Please ensure that detailed contact information for all organisations mentioned is reported under

section A.2 above.

B. Governmental acceptance, approval or endorsement

Bearing in mind that all activities implemented jointly under this pilot phase require prior acceptance, approval or endorsement by the Governments of the Parties participating in these activities, which shall be shown as follows:

(a) In the case of joint reporting, the report is submitted by the designated national authority of one participating Party with the concurrence of all other participating Parties as evidenced by attached letters issued by the relevant national authorities;

(b) In the case of separate reporting, the reports are submitted separately by the designated national authority of each and every participating Party. Information will only be compiled once reports have been received from all participating Parties.

B. 1) For the activity:

  • * First report and joint reporting: please add copies of letters of endorsement by each designated national authority of Parties involved in the activity.

* Subsequent reports:

  • Activity was: ? suspended

? terminated earlier

  • Describe:

B. 2) This report is a joint report:

  • Yes, forward copy of agreement/endorsement by the designated national authorities involved
    • No

B. 3) General short comment by the government(s) if applicable:

C. Compatibility with and supportiveness of national economic development and socio-economic and environment priorities and strategies

Describe (to the extent possible) how the activity is compatible with and supportive of national economic development and socio-economic and environment priorities and strategies

Poland seeks energy security through stable energy deliveries at socially acceptable prices and with a minimal damage to the environment. Among the priority actions are to diversify the primary energy supplies and to comply with international environmental agreements to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. This project is designed to be fully-integrated and consistent with the goals and development strategies of Poland.

AIR PROTECTION

This is based on:

  • the "Implementation Program of the National Environmental Policy till the year to 2000",
  • voivodeship lists of priority projects regarding environmental protection for 1998,

The aim of the undertakings concerning the air pollution control is to achieve reductions of pollutant emissions into the atmospheric air by: improving the fuel quality parameters and replacing fuel, by installing equipment that reduces the flue gas emissions of pollutants, by modernising and replacing technologies and by conserving energy.

A. Directions:

  1. Support for the undertakings leading to reductions of the emissions into the atmospheric air of gas and particulate pollutants, by means of the modernisation and upgrading of the fuel production and burning technologies.
  2. Support for the undertakings related to the rationalisation of heat systems, including the recovery of heat, national production of highly efficient heating equipment, combined with the use of unconventional energy sources.

B. Programmes:

  1. National Programme for Reduction of Sulphur Dioxide Emissions.
  2. Programme to eliminate low emissions.
  3. Programme to reduce nitric oxide emissions.
  4. Reduction of the exhaust gas emissions from the means of public transport, particularly in large urban-industrial agglomerations.
  5. Programme for the use of alternative sources of energy.

D. Benefits derived from the activities implemented jointly project

Whenever possible, quantitative information should be provided. Failing that, a qualitative description should be given. If quantitative information becomes available, it could be submitted using the update(s). (If the amount of quantitative information is too large, the source could be indicated.)

Item Please fill in

Describe environmental benefits in detail:

The fuel switching from coal to environmentally less hazardous natural gas will improve the local as well as global environment by contributing to GHG emissions mitigation process:

  • CO2 emissions reduction 3237 tons per year;
  • SO2 emissions reduction 25021 kg per year;
  • NOx emissions reduction 6097 kg per year;
  • Dust emission, caused by coal combustion will reduce to zero by fuel switch to gas.

The real reduction in the emissions of GHG in 2000:

  • CO2 emissions reduction 3627 tons;
  • SO2 emissions reduction 25021 kg per;
  • NOx emissions reduction 5956 kg per;
  • Dust emission, caused by coal combustion will reduce to zero by fuel switch to gas.

Do quantitative data exist for evaluation of environmental benefits?

Yes, see E.

Describe social/cultural benefits in detail:

There are few social-cultural benefits:

  • Improvement of the comfort level, by a better quality of heat supply for hot tap water production;
  • Reduction of dust emissions as a result of fuel switching of coal to natural gas and less transport of coal;
  • The reduction of dust will improve the social climate of persons, which have pulmonary diseases;
  • The combustion of coal causes visual pollution, which will be away by fuel switch;
  • In case the technology of fuel switching will be used in a great part of Poland, it is possible that the international co-operation between different countries will be intensified.

Do quantitative data exist for evaluation of social benefits?

Two surveys among the end-users were carried out to assess the social-cultural benefits.

A questionnaire has been developed. A letter of Mayor of Szamotuly introduced the survey. The first survey among the present connected consumers has been executed. The first results can be found in the Management Summary of Research Report Opinions of the Inhabitants on Szamotuly about the Local Heating System of November 1998.

In the summer of 2000 the same survey was repeated to asses the changes in opinion of the consumers.

Describe economic benefits in detail:

Demonstration of fuel switching and small scale co-generation unit in boiler houses improves the economical performance by reduction of costs because of fuel use because of higher overall efficiency.

By technology transfer it is possible for local engineering/consultancy companies to develop a larger market for fuel switching and co-generation.

COGEN takes care of the investments in the heat production, which means that the Municipality of Szamotuly can reallocate the capital towards other public needs.

Do quantitative data exist for evaluation of economic benefits?

No

E. Calculation of the contribution of activities implemented jointly projects that bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities

E. 1) Estimated emissions without the activity (project baseline):

Description of the baseline or reference scenario, including methodologies applied:

BASELINE STUDY ABSTRACT

The objective of the baseline study was to examine the situation within the range concerning the emission of greenhouse gases and other pollutants which prevails before the pilot project is going to be realised. The pilot project consists in replacing two existing coal-fired boiler houses with one gas-fired CHP plant with a co-generation unit. The analysis was carried out by means of a method based on calculations of the volume of emission resulting from the conditions of operating sources which is heat load, fuel used and the quality of fuel, during 12 months of 1997 year.

Furthermore, taking into consideration the same parameters for heat base load, the calculations for the volume of greenhouse gases emission and other pollutants were carried out for the time once the project is implemented.

Those calculations allowed the quantity of the reduction of greenhouse gases and other pollutants as the result of activities undertaken in the connection with the pilot project to be estimated.

THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS EMISSION FROM OLD BOILER HOUSES

The planned investment venture was going to cover the area which was served by two sources:

  • Boiler house no. 817 located in M.C. Sklodowskiej 1,
  • Boiler house no. 824 located in Wisniowa Street.

The maximum demand for heat generated in these two sources was:

  • for the needs of central heating 2,014 MW
  • for the needs of hot water 0,473 MW

General characteristics of the fuel

The heaters in both boiler houses were fired by the mixture of hard coal, class 31/05/04 size grade II and fine coal M-IIa (class 23/18/06) in the ratio 4:1. On the basis of date included in the invoices issued by the fuel supplier in 1997, the average technological parameters are as follows:

  • hard coal, class 31/05/04 size grade II
  • net calorific value Qw = 31 314 kJ/kg,
  • coal content Cr = 78,30 %,
  • ash content Ar = 3,64 %,
  • moisture content Wr = 4,27 %,
  • sulphur content Sr = 0,34 %,
  • fine coal M-IIa (class 23/18/06)
  • net calorific value Qw = 24 331 kJ/kg,
  • coal content Cr = 64,33 %,
  • ash content Ar = 16,30 %,
  • moisture content Wr = 9,00 %,
  • sulphur content Sr = 0,55 %,

The characteristics of the operation of the boiler houses in 1996 and 1997

On the basis of the data provided by Local Heating Company in Szamotuly some of the parameters were estimated, namely: the volume of heat generation, the monthly average heat power of the boiler houses, fuel consumption, separately for hard coal and fine coal for years 1996 and 1997. As it appears from the results, that the average efficiency for both boiler houses was 50-53 % so there is a considerable discrepancy with their nominal efficiency.

The methodology of calculating the volume of the pollutants’ emission

Typical environmental pollutants emitted by coal-fired boiler houses are basically present in the combustion gas: non-toxic dust, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide.

The emission of dust

The quantity of dust depends on the fuel quality (the content of ash, sinterability etc.), the construction features of a heater (the kind of grate, the system of channels) and heater’s maintenance procedures. The volume of dust produced during the process of burning is stated in percentage of ash content which together with fuel goes to the grate, accounts for U= 10-20%. The reduction in the volume takes place in the cyclone dust collectors or sedimentation chambers.

The emission of dust once the dust collector is passed is calculated on the basis of the following relationship:

Gpe = B * Ar *U *(1-h ) [kg]

Where: B- the volume of burnt fuel [kg]

Ar - the content of ash in fuel [kg/kg]

U – the volume of dust carried by the combustion gas

h - the efficiency of dust collecting

In the calculations of the volume of dust emission in boiler houses in Szamotuly it was assumed that the ash content in fuel is the average content of ash in particular months in the case of thick coal (Ar = 3,64 %) and fine coal (Ar = 16,30 %). It was assumed that the volume of dust carried with the combustion gas is U=15% for natural sequence (a boiler house no. 817) and U = 20% for an induced sequence (a boiler house no. 824) and the efficiency of the dust collectors is respectively:

  • For a boiler house no. 817 (M.C. Sklodowskiej) with sedimentation chambers - h = 30%
  • For a boiler house no. 824 (Wisniowa) with cyclones - h = 75%.

The emission of SO2

While calculating the figures for the emission of sulphur dioxide it was assumed that, that in the case of coal burning, that 80% of sulphur in fuel is carried away together with combustion gases into the atmosphere and 20 % is in ash and slag. The emission of SO2 was calculated on the following basis:

GSO2 = 1.6 * B * Sr [kg]

Where: B- the quantity of burnt fuel

Sr- the content of sulphur in fuel [kg/kg}

The ratio1.6 can be explained by the fact that 90% of sulphur is carried by combustion gases as SO2 and that proportions of constituting this compound are as following:

32 kg S + 32 kg O2 = 64 kg SO2.

The emission of CO2 and CO

The emission of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide depend primarily on the content of element of carbon C [kg/kg} in fuel. However the volume and relations between these compounds are determined by the quality of the actual burning process and particularly by the quantity of losses in non-complete burning Sp and losses in non-complete burning of SCO.

The first loss will determine the volume of element carbon Cr, , that will be burnt to CO2 i CO. The loss can be described by the following relationship:

Sp = Cp*33 900 / Qw

Where: Cp – the volume of non-burnt element carbon [kg/kg]

33 900 – the calorific value of burning element carbon [kJ/kg]

Qw – net calorific value of fuel [kJ/kg]

Therefore the volume of burnt element carbon is:

C – Cp = C*(1 – Sp * Qw / 33 900) [kg/kg].

The loss in non-complete burning will determine the quantitative relation CO2 to CO. That loss can be described by the following relationship:

SCO = 25 000 / Qw * [CO] / ([CO]+[CO2])

Where: 25 000 - the calorific value of burning combustion gases

[CO] – the content of CO in combustion gases {m3/ m3 )

[CO2] – the content of CO2 in combustion gases {m3/ m3 )

From that relation it seems that element carbon which is burnt to CO2 is:

CCO2 = C*(1 – Sp * Qw / 33 900) * (1 – SCO* Qw / 25 000) [kg/kg],

Whereas the volume of element carbon burnt to CO is:

CCO = C*(1 – Sp * Qw / 33 900) * SCO* Qw / 25 000 [kg/kg].

Taking into account mass relations in the process of burning carbon C, then according to the following equations:

12 kg C + 32 kg O2 = 44 kg CO2,

12 kg C + 16 kg O2 = 28 kg CO,

The emission of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide while burning B [kg} of fuel can be taken from the following relationship:

GCO2 = B * 44 / 12 * C*(1 – Sp * Qw / 33 900) * (1 – SCO* Qw / 25 000) [kg],

GCO = B * 28 / 12 * = C*(1 – Sp * Qw / 33 900) * SCO* Qw / 25 000 [kg].

These formulae were used while calculating the volume of emission of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the analysed coal-fired boiler houses in Szamotuly assuming that in the case of stable grate the loss in non-complete burning of Sp = 6% (for natural sequence – a boiler house no. 817) and Sp = 8% (for induced sequence – a boiler house no. 824) whereas the loss in non-complete burning of SCO = 2.5 % for both boiler houses.

The emission of NO2

The emission of NO2 was calculated using the indicator of the load of NO2 determined experimentally for coal-fired heaters with a stable grate (advised by the Ministry of Environment (MoE)):

  • For heaters with natural flow w = 1 kg/Mg,
  • for heaters with induced flow w = 1.5 kg/Mg

The emission of NO2 was calculated on the basis on the following relationship:

GNO2 = B * w [kg].

The volume of emission determined for coal-fired boiler houses in Szamotuly

Using the methodology of determining the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere presented above and operating parameters of boiler houses, the calculations were carried out for the volume of dust emission, emission of SO2, CO2, CO and NO2 in the subsequent months of 1997 separately for a boiler house no. 817 (Sklodowska) and for a boiler house no. 824 (Wisniowa). In the calculations the average data characterising the consumed fuel were used.

THE POLLUTANTS EMISSION FROM SYSTEM POWER PLANTS GENERATING ELECTRICITY BEING THE EQUIVALENT OF THE ELECTRICITY GENERATED BY THE PLANNED CHP PLANT

Electricity which is to be generated in the planned CHP plant in Szamotuly would be otherwise produced in system power plants. It would be then connected with the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The evaluation of the volume of such pollutant emission is the result of the conditions which Polish power plants work. The complete data allowing for determining the emission indicators were gathered in 1994:

  • The annual production of CHP plants in Poland was 112 352 GWh,
  • The annual coal consumption in those CHP plants was 95 374 000 Mg
  • with the average calorific value 12 477 kJ/kg
  • The chemical energy consumption in those CHP plants was 1 189 981 300 GJ
  • The average generating efficiency 34 %

The emission of dust

The average content of dust in burnt coal in CHP plants accounted for Ar = 15,4 %. The indicator of dust emission was 0,176 kg/GJ which annually is 209 437 Mg. Taking into account the annual electricity generation – the indicator of dust emission per electricity unit was:

1,864 kg/MWh

The emission of SO2

The average content of sulphur in burnt coal in CHP plants accounted for Sr = 0,71 %.. The indicator of SO2 emission was 1 156 908 Mg. Taking into account the annual electricity generation – the indicator of SO2 emission per electricity unit was:

10,30 kg/MWh

The emission of CO2

According to Grubba the unit CO2 emission accounts for:

  • For hard coal 98,27 kg/GJ
  • For fine coal 94,60 kg/GJ

In Polish conditions, taking into account the relation between the hard coal consumption and lignite consumption, the unit emission from CHP plants was 95,80 kg/GJ. The annual value of CO2 emission for such an indicator was 114 000 200 Mg. Taking into account the annual electricity generation – the indicator of CO2 emission per electricity unit was:

1,01467 Mg/MWh

The emission of CO

The unit emission of CO for large heaters according to MoE is 5 kg/Mg.

The annual value of the CO emission for such an indicator is 476 875 Mg. Taking into account the annual electricity generation – the indicator of CO emission per electricity unit was:

4,24 kg/MWh

The emission of NO2

The unit emission of NO2 for large heaters according to the MoE is 4 kg/Mg. The annual value of the NO2 emission for such an indicator is 381 500 Mg. Taking into account the annual electricity generation – the indicator of NO2 emission per electricity unit was:

3,4 kg/MWh

For the value of generated electricity 1664 MWh which can be generated in the planned CHP plant the value of annual pollutant emission in CHP power plants is:

  • dust 1664 MWh * 1,864 kg/MWh = 3 102 kg
  • SO2 1664 MWh * 10,30 kg/MWh = 17 139 kg
  • CO2 1664 MWh * 1,01467 Mg/MWh = 1 688,4 Mg
  • CO 1664 MWh * 4,24 kg/MWh = 7 055 kg
  • NO2 1664 MWh * 3,40 kg/MWh = 5 658 kg

THE COMPARISON OF THE POLLUTANT EMISSION FROM THE PLANNED CHP PLANT WITH THE EXISTING BOILER HOUSES IN SZAMOTULY

The figures for the volume of pollutant emission from existing coal-fired boiler houses calculated above and the figures connected with the generation of 1664 MWh of electricity in CHP plants, allow for the calculating the total value of pollutant emission before the implementation of the project. Those figures are compared against the figures for the existing situation. They are all presented in the table E 2.1.

E. 2) Estimated emissions with the activity:

Description of the scenario, including methodologies applied:

Technical description of a planned CHP plant

The heat demand for the planned source in the local heating system in the area along M.C. Sklodowskiej in Szamotuly which is to replace two existing coal-fired boiler houses no. 817 and no. 824 includes both heat for local heating system as well as hot water and can be presented in the following figures:

  • heat (co) (external temp. 18oC 2014 kW,
  • hot water (cwu) 473 kW

Total 2487 kW.

The following equipment is assumed to meet the above demand:

  • Co-generation unit Zantec 230 HR,
  • Two gas heaters with their total heat capacity 2100 kW each,
  • Heat accumulator with capacity 3,7 MW

The co-generation unit will work in the peak base load with the annual consumption of the installed capacity circa 6500 h/a, whereas the rest of the demand will be met by gas-fired heaters. The CHP plant will be –fired by gas GZ-50 with heat of combustion Qc= 39 549 kJ/m3

The characteristics of burnt fuel

Generating equipment in the CHP plant will be fired by gas GZ-50. On the basis of data sent by Local Gas Company in Poznan, the average technological parameters of this fuel in 1997 were the following:

  • Heat of combustion Qc = 39 549 kJ/m3
  • Net calorific value Qw = 35 670 kJ/m3,
  • Content of CH4 = 96,0886 %
  • Content of C2H6 = 1,3004 %
  • Content of C3H8 = 0,2392 %
  • Content of C4H10 = 0,0552 %
  • Content of C5H12 = ,0152 %
  • Content of C6H14 = 0,0142 %
  • Content of N2 = 2,2514 %
  • Content of CO2 = 0,0285 %.

The characteristics of CHP plant operation

In order to compare the work of planned CHP plant with the work of two existing boiler houses the calculations of energy generation were carried out with the assumption of heat demand from 1997. The volume of heat and electricity generation and the consumption of fuel was calculated. The assumed energy efficiency was 85%.

The methodology of calculating the volume of polluting substances

Typical pollutants emitted by gas-fired plants are present in combustion gas: carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide.

The emission of SO2

There will be no emission of SO2 in the case of burning gas GZ-50 with its content given above, because in the composition of this fuel there are not any sulphur compounds present.

The emission of CO2

The emission of CO2 depends on the content of carbon C in fuel. The determinants will be hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide in gas GZ-50 presented above. Because the carbon dioxide present in the combustion gas is the co-product of carbon dioxide being the result of exothermic processes of hydrocarbons burning and pure carbon dioxide present in fuel, therefor the volume of emitted CO2 can be calculated from the following relationship:

GCO2 = B * (CH4 + 2*C2H6 + 3*C3H8 +4*C4H10 +5*C5H12 +6*C6H14 + CO2 )*44 / 22,42/100

Where B; the volume of burnt gas fuel [m3]

CH4 , C2H6 , C3H8 , C4H10 , C5H12 , C6H14 , CO2 the volume share in fuel [%]

For the fuel composition given above this dependence can be presented as follows:

GCO2 = B * 1,958952 [kg].

The emission of CO

The emission of CO was calculated using the indicator of the load of CO determined experimentally for the equipment fired by gas GZ-50 with the heat efficiency < 1,4 MWt (suggested by MoE):

w = 360 kg/106m3

The emission of CO was calculated from the following relationship:

GCO = B * w [kg].

The emission of NO2

The emission of NO2 was calculated using the indicator of the load of NO2 determined experimentally for the equipment fired by gas GZ-50 with the heat efficiency < 1,4 MWt (suggested by MoE):

w = 1280 kg/106m3

The emission of NO2 was calculated from the following relationship:

GNO2 = B * w [kg].

  • The volume of the emission calculated for the planned CHP plant in Szamatuly

Using the methodology for the determination of the emission of polluting substances into the atmosphere, presented above and the operating parameters of the planned CHP plant in Szamotuly, the volume of CO2, CO and NO2 emission was calculated for the subsequent months of a year. The figures of this volume are presented in the table E 2.1.

Fill in the following tables as applicable:

E.2.1) Summary table: Projected emission reductions:

GHG

1999 2000 ... 2013

A) Project baseline scenario

CO2 [Mg]

4857

4857

4857

NO2 [kg]

7156

7156

7156

SO2 [kg]

25021

25021

25021

CO [kg]

68688

68688

68688

Dust [kg]

9880

9880

9880

B) Project activity scenarioa)

CO2 [Mg]

1620

1620

1620

NO2 [kg]

1059

1059

1059

SO2 [kg]

0

0

0

CO [kg]

298

298

298

Dust [kg]

0

0

0

C) Effect (B-A)

CO2 [Mg]

3237

3237

3237

NO2 [kg]

6097

6097

6097

SO2 [kg]

25021

25021

25021

CO [kg]

68390

68390

68390

Dust [kg]

9880

9880

9880

D) Cumulative effect

CO2 [Mg]

3237

6474

48555

NO2 [kg]

6097

12194

91455

SO2 [kg]

25021

50042

375315

CO [kg]

68390

136780

1025850

Dust [kg]

9880

19760

148200

a) Includes indirect GHG leakage’s.

  • E. 3) The real reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants for the year 2000:

The environmental effect in the year 2000 of the heat and power generating plant was analyzed using a method based on the calculations of emission levels resulting from the operating conditions of the source, i.e. heat and electric loads as well as consumed fuel. It concerned the 12 consecutive months of the year 2000.

During that time the plant worked with the complete set of generating devices covering the above mentioned demand, i.e.:

  • Heat and power unit Zantec 230 HR:
    1. Engine type F18 GLD
    2. Electric power - 275 kW
    3. Thermal power - 365 kW
  • Water boiler K–1:
    1. type Paromat-Simplex
    2. manufacturer Viessmann – 1998
    3. thermal power - 1400 kW
    4. pressure - 0.6 MPa
    5. temperature - 100°C
    6. water capacity - 1087 dm3
  • Water boiler K–2:
    1. type Paromat-Simplex
    2. manufacturer Viessmann – 1998
    3. thermal power - 720 kW
    4. pressure - 0.6 MPa
    5. temperature - 100°C
    6. water capacity - 2330 dm3

The units run on natural gas GZ-50 from the communal gas grid.

The heat and power unit (BSC) worked in the heat load base with the planned annual utilization time of the generating capacity at approx. 6500 h/a. Natural gas GZ-50 with the gross calorific value Qc = 39 549 kJ/m3 was used in the heat and power generating plant.

On the basis of measurements constituting the basis for settling accounts connected with the sales of heat and electric energy as well as the purchases of the gaseous fuel, the figures concerning the electricity production were calculated for individual generating units of the source in the year 2000. The heat and electricity production volumes, together with the gaseous fuel consumption, were determined for the consecutive months.

The measurement results of the contents of individual gases in the flue gases of individual generating units, (an exhaust gas analyzer Testo 350), made it possible to determine the annual emissions produced by the heat and power generating plant. Average values of indications in measurement series for individual sources of energy were applied in the calculations.

Applying the elemental composition of natural gas GZ-50 used in the Szamotuly heat and power generating plant and measurement results, stoichiometric simulation of combustion processes was calculated separately for each unit. In this way the values of unit emissions were determined for carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon oxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The consumption of fuel chemical energy by individual generating units throughout the year 2000 made it possible to establish the annual emissions of pollutants for the whole installation (E.3.1).

E.3.1) Summary table: Real emission reductions:

GHG

2000 2001 ... 2013

A) Project baseline scenario

CO2 [Mg]

4857

NO2 [kg]

7156

SO2 [kg]

25021

CO [kg]

68688

Dust [kg]

9880

B) Project activity

CO2 [Mg]

1230

NO2 [kg]

1200

SO2 [kg]

0

CO [kg]

1163

Dust [kg]

0

C) Effect (B-A)

CO2 [Mg]

3627

NO2 [kg]

5956

SO2 [kg]

25021

CO [kg]

67525

Dust [kg]

9880

D) Cumulative effect

CO2 [Mg]

3627

NO2 [kg]

5956

SO2 [kg]

25021

CO [kg]

67525

Dust [kg]

9880

Comparing the planned levels of emissions from the modernized source with the actual emission figures, it needs to be stated that:

  • The annual emission of greenhouse gases is lower than planned,
  • The annual emissions of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxides are higher than planned.

These differences result from two facts:

  1. Lower levels of heat and electricity production in the year 2000 then in the year 1997 (baseline). Lower heat production results from the higher outdoor temperatures in the year 2000 than those assumed in the basic study. On the other hand, the actual electricity production lower by over 50% is the effect of poor availability of the heat and power generating unit (standstills due to failures) and of insufficiently developed automation of the whole system (low utilization rate of the heat and power generating unit).
  2. Higher emissions of nitrogen oxides and primarily that of carbon oxide result from the operation of the heat and power generating unit itself, which in this respect exceeds the admissible standards (five times in case of CO2).

F. Bearing in mind that the financing of activities implemented jointly shall be additional to financial obligations of Parties included in Annex II to the Convention within the framework of the financial mechanism as well as to current official development assistance flows, please indicate

Source of project funding

Including pre-feasibility phase

(For each source one line)

Amount

(US dollars)

Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (PSO-JI)

446 000 (910 000 NLG)

Energetyka Poznanska S.A. (COGEN)

278 000 (566 000 NLG)

Total

724 000 (1 476 000 NLG)

G. Contribution to capacity building, transfer of environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention. In this process, the developed country Parties shall support the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies of developing country Parties

Describe briefly the transfer of environmentally sound technology and know-how including where appropriate the type of technology, terms, education, capacity building etc.

Business development and transfer of technology to the Joint Venture Cogen. Establishing a business and institutional framework for the modernisation of similar BH’s. Technology transfer starts with gas fired boilers and small scale co-generation systems involving transfer of technology in terms of organisation, finance and operations.

H. Additional comments, if any, including any practical experience gained or technical difficulties, effects, impacts or other obstacles encountered

Fill in as appropriate:

H. 1) Any practical experience gained:

H. 2) Technical difficulties:

During technical discussions appeared that due to very bad condition of circulation system of district heating network there is a possibility that not all heat produced in a boiler house might be distributed to the customers. So it was decided to extend investment by modernising also circulation system (pumps and vessels for hot water accumulation).

H. 3) negative impacts and/or effects encountered:

Whenever possible, quantitative information should be provided. Failing that, a qualitative description should be given. If quantitative information becomes available, it could be submitted using the update(s). (If the amount of quantitative information is too large, the source could be indicated).

Item Please fill in

Describe environmental negative impacts/effects in detail:

Not expected

Do quantitative data exist for evaluation of environmental negative impacts/effects?

No

Describe social/cultural negative impacts/effects in detail:

Possible fear of gas explosion

Do quantitative data exist for evaluation of social negative impacts/effects?

No

Describe economic negative impacts/effects in detail:

Necessity of additional investment (circulation system). See H.2)

Do quantitative data exist for evaluation of economic negative impacts/effects?

No

H. 4) Other obstacles encountered:

None

H. 5) Other:

The project was submitted to JIRC, the Dutch Joint Implementation Registration Centre, for registration.


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