At the UN Climate Change
Conference in Warsaw, governments took further essential decisions to stay on track towards
securing a universal climate change agreement in 2015. The objective of the 2015 agreement is
- First, to bind nations together into an effective global effort to reduce emissions
rapidly enough to chart humanity's longer-term path out of the danger zone of climate
change, while building adaptation capacity.
- Second, to stimulate faster and broader action now.
To these ends, governments agreed to communicate their respective contributions towards the universal
agreement well in advance of the meeting in Paris in 2015. Further, the required monitoring, reporting and verification arrangements for
domestic action have been finalized for implementation, thereby providing a solid foundation for the
Importantly, further progress was also made in helping countries, especially the poorest, adapt to
the impacts of climate change and build their own sustainable, clean energy futures.
In a breakthrough outcome, the rulebook for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation was
agreed, together with measures to bolster forest preservation and a results-based payment system to
promote forest protection.
The Green Climate Fund, planned to be a major channel of
financing for developing world action, will be ready for capitalization in the second half of 2014.
Additionally, governments agreed on a mechanism to address loss and damage
caused by long-term climate change impacts.
The most recent climate science shows that human-generated climate change is beyond doubt, but we
have a limited time to keep warming to a maximum of under two degrees. However, global greenhouse gas
emissions need to peak this decade, and get to zero net emissions by the second half of this century.
To achieve this, it is critical that action is taken and coordinated swiftly at all levels:
international, domestic, business and finance.
For this reason, COP19 in Warsaw also provided a showcase for climate action by business, cities,
regions and civil society. The solutions to climate change are already clear and the world has the
money and technology, the knowledge and models to succeed. The results of effective climate action
are also clear: immediate, shared benefits to all economies and citizens and a sustainable future for
Below is an overview of key outcomes that governments agreed in Warsaw:
Decisions towards a universal agreement in December 2015, which will enter into force in
- Governments advanced the timeline for the development of the 2015 agreement. They will
elaborate the elements of the new climate agreement as of their first meeting in March 2014, table an initial draft
text by December 2014, and submit the formal draft text by May 2015, all with a view to
enabling the negotiations to successfully conclude in December 2015.
- Governments decided to either begin or to intensify domestic preparations for their
nationally determined contributions towards the agreement so that they are ready well before
December 2015 and ideally by the first quarter in 2015. This is an important part of the
timeline of the negotiations.
- It was also decided that nationally determined contributions would be put forward in a
clear and transparent manner. Developed country governments were urged to provide support to
developing countries for this important domestic process.
- Governments agreed to identify the precise information that countries will provide when
putting forward their nationally determined contributions by the beginning of the UN Climate
Change Conference in Lima at the end of 2014.
Closing the pre-2020 ambition gap
- Governments resolved to strengthen measures to close the "ambition gap" –
the gap between what has been pledged to date and what is required to keep the world below a
maximum average 2 degrees Celsius temperature rise - before the new agreement enters into
force in 2020.
- They will intensify the technical examination of opportunities that hold a high potential
to curb greenhouse gas emissions and will frequently engage Ministers on the issue.
- To this end, governments will also accelerate the implementation of policies and
environmentally sound technologies.
- Additionally, they urge the voluntary cancellation of Certified Emission Reductions
(CERs) under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development
The urgency to support peoples affected by climate change impacts
- Governments established the Warsaw International Mechanism for
Loss and Damage. The mechanism will address losses and damages associated with long-term
climate change impacts in developing countries that are especially vulnerable to such
- The interim implementation of the mechanism will be guided by an executive committee,
which will report to the COP, and be reviewed in 2016.
- The mechanism will facilitate the exchange of information and best practices for dealing
with climate change-induced losses and damages, as well as strengthen action and support,
including by facilitating the mobilization of finance.
- The first meeting of the executive committee will be held in March 2014.
Strengthening efforts to mobilize USD 100 billion by 2020
- In view of developed countries' commitment to mobilize USD 100 billion annually by
2020 to support developing countries in their climate change actions, developed countries
agreed to make their efforts in this regard publicly known on a biennial basis from 2014 to
2020. Technical workshops on best ways of scaling up finance will also be held.
- It was also decided to convene Ministerial meetings on long-term
finance every two years for the period 2014-2020. These meetings should provide political
impetus to the discussions.
- Additionally, the Green Climate Fund is open for business and will begin its initial
resource mobilization process in the middle of 2014.
These sets of decisions represent important progress towards successfully concluding a
universal deal in 2015 that responds to science and protects the most vulnerable. In
addition, governments concluded work which pushes forward ongoing efforts to address
Cutting emissions from deforestation – "the Warsaw Framework for
- Governments agreed on a set of decisions on ways to reduce emissions from deforestation
and forest degradation. The decisions are the culmination of 7 years of work, and their
agreement comes as a clear breakthrough for action on climate change.
- Global deforestation accounts for some 20 percent of the world's CO2 emissions. The
set of decisions bolsters forest preservation and sustainable use of forests with direct
benefits for people who live in and around forests.
- The package provides a foundation for the transparency and integrity of actions and
clarifies the coordination of support.
- It establishes the means for results-based payments if developing countries can
demonstrate the protection of forests. For this purpose, the package is backed by initial
pledges of USD 280 million.
Progress on driving adaptation
- All 48
Least Developed Countries under the UNFCCC umbrella finalized a comprehensive set of
plans to deal with climate change impacts. These plans serve to better assess the immediate
impacts of climate change and enable countries to determine the support and actions they
require to become more resilient.
- Developed countries met the target capitalization of USD 100 million for the Adaptation
Fund, which can now continue funding priority projects.
Progress towards accountability
- The framework for measuring, reporting and verifying mitigation efforts, including by
developing countries, is now fully operational. A big achievement after many years of hard
work, this agreement by governments is important because it means that the mitigation,
sustainability and support efforts of countries can now be better measured.
- This will also provide confidence to donors and investors who are potentially interested
in financing nationally appropriate
Technology to boost action on climate change
Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), tasked with stimulating technology cooperation
and transfer to developing countries, is now open for business.
- The Advisory Board of the CTCN agreed on the rules for the CTCN. This means that the
CTCN, established in Cancun in 2010, has now moved to the
operational stage to support action by developing countries in response to their requests for
support through their
national designated entities.
- The CTCN is ready to respond to requests from developing countries on issues related to
the development and transfer of technology.