Your location: Home >  > Mitigation


Compilation of economy-wide emission reduction targets to be implemented by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention
 
Annex I Parties Quantified economy-wide emissions  emission reduction targets for 2020
Emissions reduction in 2020 Base year
Australia

Australia will reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 25 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020 if the world agrees to an ambitious global deal capable of stabilizing levels of GHGs in the atmosphere at 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) or lower. Australia will unconditionally reduce its emissions by 5 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020 and by up to 15 per cent by 2020 if there is a global agreement which falls short of securing atmospheric stabilization at 450 ppm CO2 eq under which major developing economies commit to  substantially restraining their emissions and advanced economies take on commitments comparable to Australia’s.

2000

Belarus

Belarus communicated a target of a 5–10 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels, which is premised on: the existence of and access of Belarus to the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the intensification of technology transfer, capacity-building and enhancing the experience of Belarus, taking into consideration the special conditions of the Annex I Parties undergoing the process of transition to a market economy; as well as there being clarity on the use of new rules and modalities for land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). 1990
Canada
Canada communicated a target of a 17 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 2005 levels, to be aligned with the final economy-wide emission reduction target of the United States of America in enacted legislation. Submission of this target was made with the expectation that other Annex I Parties and major Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (non-Annex I Parties) would submit information on their emission targets and mitigation actions by 31 January 2010, pursuant to paragraphs 4 and 5 of the Copenhagen Accord. 2005
Croatia

Croatia communicated a temporary target of a 5 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels, with its level of emissions for 1990 (the base year) calculated in accordance with decision 7/CP.12. Upon the accession of Croatia to the European Union, the Croatian target will be replaced by a relevant arrangement in line with and as part of the European Union mitigation effort.

1990

Base year calculated according to decision 7/CP.12

EU

The European Union and its member States communicated an independent quantified economy-wide emission reduction target of a 20 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels. Under the conditions set out by the European Council of December 2009 and as part of a global and comprehensive agreement for the period beyond 2012, the European Union reiterated its conditional offer to move to a 30 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels, provided that other developed countries commit themselves to comparable emission reductions and that developing countries contribute adequately according to their responsibilities and respective capabilities.   

The European Union and its 27 member States wished to reconfirm their commitment to a negotiating process aimed at achieving the strategic objective of limiting the increase in global average temperature to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Meeting that objective requires the level of global GHG emissions to peak by 2020 at the latest, to be reduced by at least 50 per cent compared with 1990 levels by 2050 and to continue to decline thereafter. To this end, and in accordance with the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, developed countries as a group should reduce their GHG emissions to below 1990 levels through domestic and complementary international efforts by 25 to 40 per cent by 2020 and by 80 to 95 per cent by 2050, while developing countries as a group should achieve a substantial deviation below the currently predicted rate of growth in emissions, in the order of 15 to 30 per cent by 2020. The European  Union and its 27 member States are fully committed to continuing to negotiate with the other Parties, with a view to concluding as soon as possible within the United Nations framework a legally binding international agreement for the period commencing 1 January 2013.

The European Union and its 27 member States wished to recall that the European Union climate and energy package has already been adopted.5 Among other things, this package consolidates the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and expands its scope. In addition, pursuant to the European Union “effort-sharing decision”, member States are required to implement additional policies and measures concerning the GHG emissions from sources not falling under the EU ETS, in order to reach the overall European Union emission reduction target.


 

Footnote:
Decision 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas
emission reduction commitments up to 2020 and directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council directive 96/61/EC, as amended by directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009, amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community.  

1990

Iceland

Iceland communicated a target of a 30 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels, in a joint effort with the European Union, as part of a global and comprehensive agreement for the period beyond 2012, provided that other developed countries commit themselves to comparable emission reductions and that developing
countries contribute adequately according to their responsibilities and respective capabilities. This target would be achieved jointly by Iceland and the European Union member States, with Iceland adhering fully to the European Union climate and energy package.
In addition, the Government of Iceland adopted in 2009 the goal of reducing the country’s net GHG emissions by 15 per cent by 2020 compared with 1990 levels, with the understanding that the rules governing the Kyoto Protocol would continue to apply after 2012.
1990
Japan

Japan announces a target of 3.8% or more emission reduction in 2020 compared to the 2005 level, which was set on May 13, 2016.

2005
Kazakhstan²

Kazakhstan communicated a target of a 15 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels.

 

Footnotes:

Kazakhstan initially communicated a target of a 15 per cent emission reduction compared with 1992 levels. The original communication is available at <<a target="_top" href="/meetings/copenhagen_dec_2009/5264">http://unfccc.int/home/items/5264.php>.

Kazakhstan’s latest submission to update its base year is contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/2012/MISC.1.

1990
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein communicated its commitment to a GHG emission reduction target of 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020. If other developed countries agree to comparable reductions and emerging economies contribute according to their respective capabilities and
responsibilities within the framework of a binding agreement, Liechtenstein is prepared to raise this target to 30 per cent.
1990
Monaco Monaco is committed to reducing its GHG emissions by a target of 30 per cent by 2020 compared with 1990 levels.
To achieve this emission reduction target, Monaco intends to use the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol, in particular the clean development mechanism.
Also, Monaco aims to become carbon neutral by 2050 at the latest and as such maintains the possibility of exceeding its emission reduction target for 2020 through the use
of mechanisms.
1990
New Zealand

New Zealand has adopted a firm and unconditional target of reducing its emissions to 5 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020.
The target will be expressed as a carbon budget (a quantified emission limitation or reduction objective of 96.8) and New Zealand will apply, mutatis mutandis, Kyoto Protocol second commitment period accounting rules.
The Government of New Zealand remains ready to consider taking on further targets, as announced initially in the context of the Copenhagen Accord, should the conditions stated in paragraph 26 below be met.
26. New Zealand is prepared to take on a GHG emission reduction target of between 10 and 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020, if there is a comprehensive global agreement.
This means:
(a) That the global agreement sets the world on a pathway to limiting
temperature rise to no more than 2 °C;
(b) That developed countries make comparable efforts to those of New Zealand;
(c) That advanced and major-emitting developing countries take action fully commensurate with their respective capabilities;
(d) That there is an effective set of rules for LULUCF;
(e) That there is full recourse to a broad and efficient international carbon market.

 

Footnotes:

New Zealand initially communicated a conditional GHG emission reduction target of between 10 and 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020. The original communication is available at <<a target="_top" href="/meetings/copenhagen_dec_2009/5264">http://unfccc.int/home/items/5264.php>.

 

New Zealand’s latest submission is available at
<<a href="http://unfccc.int/files/documentation/submissions_from_parties/application/pdf/13-1620.pdf" target="_blank">pdf-icon http://unfccc.int/files/documentation/submissions_from_parties/application/pdf/13-1620.pdf>.

1990

Norway

As part of a global and comprehensive agreement for the period beyond 2012 whereby major-emitting Parties agree on emission reductions in line with the objective of a maximum 2 °C global temperature rise, Norway will move from its initial pledge of an emission reduction target of 30 per cent by 2020 compared with 1990 levels to a target of a
40 per cent reduction for the same time frame.
An important feature of Norwegian climate change policy is the flexible and cost-effective Kyoto Protocol based approach. The continuation of the Kyoto Protocol or its basic elements as part of a future framework, in particular the availability of flexibility mechanisms for compliance with emission reduction commitments, is therefore an underlying premise for Norway’s emission reduction target. Norway underlined the importance of pursuing various approaches, including opportunities to use markets, as stated in paragraph 7 of the Copenhagen Accord.   
1990

Russian Federation

The Russian Federation communicated a target within the range of a 15–25 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels. The range of its GHG emission reductions will depend on the following conditions:
a) Appropriate accounting of the potential of its forestry sector in the context of its contribution to meeting the obligations of anthropogenic emission reductions;
(b) The undertaking by all major emitters of the legally binding obligations to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions.

 

Footnote:

In its letter to the UNFCCC Executive Secretary of 8 December 2010, the Russian Federation reconfirmed its readiness to fulfil commitments within the framework of the Copenhagen Accord to reduce GHG emissions in the post-2012 period. In this context, the Russian Federation intends to fulfil such commitments by participating in a new comprehensive legally binding agreement, which should be developed before the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.

1990
Switzerland
As part of a global and comprehensive agreement for the period beyond 2012, Switzerland reiterated its conditional offer to move from its target of a 20 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels to a 30 per cent emission reduction, provided that other developed countries commit themselves to comparable emission reductions and
that developing countries contribute adequately according to their responsibilities and respective capabilities.
1990
Ukraine

Ukraine communicated a target of a 20 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels and associated itself with the Copenhagen Accord under the following conditions:


(a) That developed countries have an agreed position on the quantified emission reduction targets of Annex I Parties;


(b) That Ukraine maintains its status as a country with an economy in transition and the relevant preferences arising from such status;


(c) That the existing flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol are kept;


(d) That 1990 is kept as the single base year for calculating Parties’
commitments;


(e) That the provisions of Article 3, paragraph 13, of the Kyoto Protocol are used for the calculation of the quantified emission reductions of the Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol for the relevant commitment period.

1990
United States of America The United States communicated a target in the range of a 17 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 2005 levels, in conformity with anticipated United States energy and climate legislation, recognizing that the final target will be reported to the secretariat in the light of the enacted legislation. In addition, the pathway set forth in
pending legislation would entail a 30 per cent emission reduction by 2025 and a 42 per cent emission reduction by 2030, in line with the goal to reduce emissions by 83 per cent by 2050. The submission of the target by the United States was made on the assumption that other Annex I Parties, as well as more advanced non-Annex I Parties, would, by 31 January 2010, associate with the Copenhagen Accord and submit mitigation actions for compilation into an information document in accordance with paragraph 4 or 5 of the Accord, as the case may be.
2005
 
Document
Compilation of economy-wide emission reduction targets to be implemented by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention
 
Submissions received after May 2014
Japan:
pdf-icon Note Verbale (154 kB) and
pdf-icon Common Template (257 kB) : Submitted 20 July  2016.