The Convention requires all Parties, taking into account their responsibilities and
capabilities, to formulate and implement programmes containing measures to mitigate
climate change. Mitigation actions could be economy-wide, cover several or single
sectors, such as energy supply and demand, transport, buildings, industry,
agriculture, forestry and waste management. There is a number of mitigation options,
which Parties may use taken into count their national circumstances, availability of
financial resources, mitigation potential and the policy implementation issues.
There is also a link between climate change mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development.
Mitigation policies and measures used by developed country Parties
mostly focussed on the large emitting sectors, such as energy and transport.
Strengthening of climate change policy portfolios resulted in policies and measures
in some key areas being substantially strengthened, through more stringent
requirements, wider coverage and increased investment. Regulatory and fiscal
instruments were complimented by market based instruments such as GHG emission
trading schemes. Developed countries periodically present their mitigation actions in
their National Communications, which
are summarised in the compilation
and synthesis reports. More recently, developed countries have agreed to
implement under the Convention quantified economy-wide emission targets for
The Kyoto Protocol
"operationalizes" the Convention by committing industrialized countries to
limit greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, emission limitation or reduction targets add
up to, at minimum, five per cent emissions reduction compared to 1990 levels over the
five-year period 2008 to 2012. Negotiations are currently on-going to decide on a second commitment
period of the Protocol.
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: developing country
Parties have been contributing to global mitigation efforts in several ways. The
clean development mechanism (CDM) has been an
important avenue of action for these countries to implement project activities that
reduce emissions and enhance sinks. More recently, developing countries have agreed
to implement Nationally
Appropriate Mitigation actions, or NAMAs, with support from developed countries.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: The
IPCC (2007) estimated emissions from deforestation in the 1990s to be at 5.8
GtCO2/year. Parties to the UNFCCC process recognized the contribution of greenhouse
gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries to climate change and the
need to take action to reduce such emissions. Developing countries are encouraged to
contribute to mitigation actions in the forest sector by undertaking activities
relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation,
conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and
enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD-plus). In
the REDD Web platform
relevant organizations and stakeholders are encouraged to submit information relating
Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport
contribute increasingly to global GHG emissions. To address these
emissions cooperation among the UNFCCC and the International Civil Aviation
Organization and the International Maritime Organization is important.
Response measures: All over the world, many measures are being taken
in order to mitigate climate change by countries trying to live up to their
commitments under the Convention and Kyoto Protocol. According to the Convention,
Parties shall take into consideration the specific needs and concerns of developing
country parties arising from the impact of response
measures. The Kyoto Protocol commits Parties to strive to minimize
adverse economic, social and environmental impacts on other Parties, especially
developing country Parties.