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Title
Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol without Russian participation [electronic resource]

Author
Holtsmark, Bjart J.
Alfsen, Knut H.

Electronic version available
English

Abstract
All Annex B parties but Russia, Australia and USA, have ratified the Kyoto Protocol so far. It is still an open question whether Russia will ratify and secure that the Protocol enters into force. This paper therefore analyzes consequences of some proposed alternatives if the Russians decide not to ratify. The paper focuses on two cases where a limited number of the remaining Annex B parties respond to Russian withdrawal by the establishment of a new "mini-Kyoto" agreement whereby these parties commit themselves to the emission caps, the rules for emissions trading, compliance etc. set out in the Protocol. Environmentally, implementation of the Kyoto Protocol without participation from Russia and Ukraine is obviously superior to implementation with Russian/Ukrainian participation, due to the implied withdrawal of hot air based permits from the market. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol without Russian/Ukrainian participation will, furthermore, imply higher costs to the remaining countries. This paper provides estimates of the permit price and environmental benefits that are likely if the proposed "mini-Kyoto" agreements are implemented.

Notes
Full text available online

Copy number
FCCC/PRT/104 E

Publisher
Statistics Norway, Research Department
Place of Publication
Kongsvinger (Norway)
Publication date
01/04/2004
Call number
FCCC/PRT/104 E

Keywords
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
global warming
Kyoto Protocol
political participation
Russian Federation
tradeable emission entitlements


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