This time line detailing the international response to climate change provides a contextual entry point to the
Essential Background. You can also use the links on the left-hand column under Essential Background to navigate
2015 - Intensive negotiations took place under the Ad Hoc Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action
(ADP) throughout 2012-2015 and culminated in the adoption of the Paris Agreement by the COP on 12 December
2015. More on the Paris Agreement.
2014 - At COP 20 in Lima in 2014, Parties adopted the ‘Lima Call for Action’, which elaborated key
elements of the forthcoming agreement in Paris. More on
the Lima Call for Action.
2013 - Key decisions adopted at COP 19/CMP 9 include decisions on further advancing the Durban Platform, the
Green Climate Fund and Long-Term Finance, the Warsaw Framework for REDD Plus and the Warsaw International
Mechanism for Loss and Damage. Under the Durban Platform, Parties agreed to submit “intended nationally
determined contributions”, known as INDCs, well before the Paris conference. More on the Warsaw Outcomes.
2012 - The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol is adopted by the CMP at CMP 8. More on the Doha Amendment. Several
decisions taken opening a gateway to greater ambition and action on all levels. More on the Doha Climate Gateway.
2011 — The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action drafted and accepted by the COP, at COP17. More on the Durban outcomes.
2010 — Cancun Agreements drafted and largely accepted by the COP, at COP 16. More on the Cancun Agreements.
2009 — Copenhagen Accord drafted at COP 15 in Copenhagen. This was taken note of by the COP. Countries
later submitted emissions reductions pledges or mitigation action pledges, all non-binding.
2007 — IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report released. Climate science entered into popular
consciousness. At COP 13, Parties agreed on the Bali Road Map, which charted the way towards a post-2012
outcome in two work streams: the AWG-KP, and another under the Convention, known as the Ad-Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action Under the Convention.
More about the Bali Road Map.
2005 — Entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol
(MOP 1) takes place in Montreal. In accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements, Parties launched
negotiations on the next phase of the KP under the Ad Hoc
Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). What was to
become the Nairobi Work Programme on Adaptation (it would receive its name in 2006, one year later) is
accepted and agreed on. More
about the Nairobi Work Programme.
2001 — Release of IPCC's Third Assessment Report. Bonn Agreements adopted, based on the Buenos
Aires Plan of Action of 1998.
Marrakesh Accords adopted at COP 7, detailing rules for implementation of Kyoto Protocol, setting up new
funding and planning instruments for adaptation, and establishing a technology transfer framework.
1997 — Kyoto Protocol formally adopted in December at COP 3. More about the Kyoto Protocol.
1996 — The UNFCCC Secretariat is set up to support action under the Convention. More on the Secretariat.
1995 — The first Conference of the Parties (COP 1) takes place in Berlin.
1994 — UNFCCC enters into force. An
introduction to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
1992 — The INC adopts UNFCCC text. At the Earth Summit in Rio, the UNFCCC is opened for signature along
with its sister Rio Conventions, UNCBD and UNCCD. More about the two other Rio Conventions: UNCBD and UNCCD.
1991 — First meeting of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) takes place.
1990 — IPCC's first assessment report released. IPCC and second World Climate Conference call for a
global treaty on climate change. United Nations General Assembly negotiations on a framework convention
1988 — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is set up. More about the science of climate change.
1979 — The first World Climate Conference (WCC) takes place.