For the purposes of this Convention:
1. "Adverse effects of climate change" means changes in the physical environment or biota
resulting from climate change which have significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience or
productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operation of socio-economic systems or on human
health and welfare.
2. "Climate change" means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human
activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate
variability observed over comparable time periods.
3. "Climate system" means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere
and their interactions.
4. "Emissions" means the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere
over a specified area and period of time.
5. "Greenhouse gases" means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and
anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation.
6. "Regional economic integration organization" means an organization constituted by sovereign
States of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention or its
protocols and has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify,
accept, approve or accede to the instruments concerned.
7. "Reservoir" means a component or components of the climate system where a greenhouse gas or a
precursor of a greenhouse gas is stored.
8. "Sink" means any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or
a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.
9. "Source" means any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a
precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.
* Titles of articles are included solely to assist the reader.