In their actions to achieve the objective of the Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties
shall be guided, INTER ALIA, by the following:
1. The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of
humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities
and respective capabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating
climate change and the adverse effects thereof.
2. The specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are
particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, and of those Parties, especially
developing country Parties, that would have to bear a disproportionate or abnormal burden under the
Convention, should be given full consideration.
3. The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate
change and mitigate its adverse effects. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of
full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures, taking into account
that policies and measures to deal with climate change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global
benefits at the lowest possible cost. To achieve this, such policies and measures should take into account
different socio-economic contexts, be comprehensive, cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of
greenhouse gases and adaptation, and comprise all economic sectors. Efforts to address climate change may
be carried out cooperatively by interested Parties.
4. The Parties have a right to, and should, promote sustainable development. Policies and measures to
protect the climate system against human-induced change should be appropriate for the specific conditions
of each Party and should be integrated with national development programmes, taking into account that
economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change.
5. The Parties should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would
lead to sustainable economic growth and development in all Parties, particularly developing country
Parties, thus enabling them better to address the problems of climate change. Measures taken to combat
climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable
discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.