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Climate Change Information Sheet 30
DATA on greenhouse gas emissions and sources

Table 1: Examples of greenhouse gases affected by human activities


CO2
(Carbon Dioxide)

CH4
(Methane)

N2O
(Nitrous Oxide)

CHC-11
(Chlorofluoro- carbon-11)

HFC-23
(Hydrofluoro
-carbon-23)

CF4
(Perfluoro-
methane)

Pre-industrial concentration

About 280 ppm

About 700 ppb

About 270 ppb

Zero

Zero

40 ppt

Concentration in 1998

365 ppm

1745 ppb

314 ppb

268 ppt

14 ppt

80 ppt

Rate of concentration changeb

1.5 ppm/yra

7.0 ppb/yra

0.8 ppb/yr

-1.4 ppt/yr

0.55 ppt/yr

1 ppt/yr

Atmospheric lifetime

5 to 200 yrc

12 yrd

114 yrd

45 yr

260 yr

>50.000 yr

Notes:
a Rate has fluctuated between 0.9 ppm/yr and 2.8 ppm/yr for CO2 and between 0 and 13 ppb/yr for CH4 over the period 1990 to 1999.
b Rate is calculated over the period 1990 to 1999.
c No single lifetime can be defined for CO2 because of the different rates of uptake by different removal processes.
d This lifetime has been defined as an “adjustment time” that takes into account the indirect effect of the gas on its own residence time.

Source: “Climate 2001, The Scientific Basis, Technical Summary of the Working Group I Report”, p.38.



Table 2: World Energy Consumption (Mtoe)
**


1971

1977

2010

2020

1997-2020*

Total Final Consumption

3,627

5,808

7,525

9,117

2.0

Coal

620

635

693

757

0.8

Oil

1,888

2,823

3,708

4,493

2.0

Gas

608

1,044

1,338

1,606

1.9

Electricity

377

987

1,423

1,846

2.8

Heat

68

232

244

273

0.7

Renewables

66

87

118

142

2.2

* Average annual growth rate, in percent
** Million tones of oil equivalent
Source: International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook 2000”, p.61.



Table 3: Greenhouse gas emissions from developed countries 1990 – 1999

All figures gigagrams or percentage change. The 1990 figures for all GHGs without sinks offer reasonable approximations to the ‘assigned amounts’ against which the Kyoto targets will be measured; however, there are various inconsistencies – e.g. implications of Protocol Article 3.7 not reflected, some base years for HFCs/PFCs/SF6 differ – and the figures are likely to be revised.

COUNTRY

All GHGs 1990 w/o sinks

All GHGs 1999
w/o sinks

Percent
Change

Kyoto
Target (%)

Australia

423 237

484 699

+14.5

+8

Austria

75 452

80 315

+6.4

-8 (-13)

Belgium

136 463

145 372

+6.5

-8 (-7.5)

Bulgaria*§

157 090

84 317

-46.3

-8

Canada

611 770

692 230

+13.2

-6

Czech*

189 837

147 777

-22.2

-8

Denmark

69 567

76 144

+9.5

-8 (-21)

Estonia*

40 719

21 756

-46.6

-8

Finland

75 202

76 315

+1.5

-8 (0)

France

553 778

558 726

+0.9

-8 (0)

Germany

1 208 807

1 019 745

-15.6

-8 (-21)

Greece

105 346

124 315

+18.0

-8 (-25)

Hungary*§

101 633

83 677

-17.7

-6

Iceland

2 576

a 2 696

+4.7

+10

Ireland

53 497

63 718

+19.1

-8 (-13)

Italy

518 502

541 542

+4.4

-8 (-6.5)

Japan

1 213 262

b 1 330 555

+9.7

-6

Latvia*

35 669

11 504

-67.7

-8

Liechtenstein

260



-8

Lithuania*

51 548

23 851

-53.7

-8

Luxembourg

13 448

a 10 223

-24.0

-8 (-28)

Monaco

111

142

+28.4

-8

Netherlands

217 882

236 251

+8.4

-8 (-6)

New Zealand

73 068

74 886

+2.5

0

Norway

52 141

56 148

+7.7

+1

Poland*§

564 286

402 477

-28.7

-6

Portugal

63 858

74 870

+17.2

-8 (-27)

Romania*§

264 879

c 164 026

-38.1

-8

Russian Fed.*

3 040 062

1 962 441

-35.4

0

Slovakia*

76 304

52 818

-30.8

-8

Slovenia*

19 212



-8

Spain

305 746

369 856

+21.0

-8 (-15)

Sweden

69 399

73 842

+6.4

-8 (-4)

Switzerland

53 005

53 706

+1.3

-8

Ukraine*

919 220

454 934

-50.5

0

UK

741 489

679 850

-8.3

-8 (-12.5)

US

6 048 786

6 726 997

+11.2

-7

Annex I °

18 147 110

16 982 195

-6.4

-5

Annex II °

12 686 651

13 553 405

+6.8

- -

EIT °

5 460 459

3 428 790

-37.2

- -


Source:
Climate Change Secretariat, “National Communications from Parties Includes in Annex I to the Convention : Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data from 1990 to 1999”, Document FCCC/SBI/2000/13 and Add. 1. Please see original document for the complete set of footnotes.
Notes:
Annex I:
includes all the countries listed in the table, which are the Parties with quantified emissions targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
Annex II:
includes the most industrialized countries only, listed here without asterisks.
EIT: the countries with economies in transition, indicated here by asterisks.
Gigagram
= 1,000 tons
All greenhouse gases
: includes emissions of the six gases addressed by the Kyoto Protocol (where reported): carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20), HFCs, PFCs, and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Expressed as CO2 equivalents. Carbon removals by sinks are excluded.
Kyoto targets: expressed as a percentage increase or decrease from 1990 levels (or other reference period). The European Union as a group is committed to –8%; the national rates allocated through an internal EU agreement are indicated here in parentheses. The targets are to be achieved in the five-year period 2008–2012.
§ Some Parties with economies in transition use base years other than 1990: Bulgaria (1988), Hungary (average of 1985-87), Poland (1988) and Romania (1989). These base years are given in this table in lieu of 1990. ° Values for 1998 based on the latest available data for each country.
a
latest available data is from 1998;
b
Latest available data is from 1994;
c
Latest available data is from 1996.


Table 4: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, 1998

Largest emitters: Annex I and Non-Annex I Parties (Million of tonnes of CO2)

Top ten: Annex I &
non-Annex I Parties

% World Top ten: Annex I Parties


% World Top ten:
non-Annex I Parties

% World
1 United States 5,410 24% United States 5,409.75 24% China 2,893.15 13%
2 China 2,893 13% Russian Federation 1,415.78 6% India 908.2 4%
3 Russian Federation 1,416 6% Japan 1,128.34 5% Republic of Korea 370.14 2%
4 Japan 1,128 5% Germany 857.05 4% Mexico 356.3 2%
5 Germany 857 4% United Kingdom 549.51 2% South Africa 353.67 2%
6 India 908 4% Canada 477.25 2% Brazil 295.86 1%
7 United Kingdom 550 2% Italy 425.99 2% Saudi Arabia 270.73 1%
8 Canada 477 2% France 375.5 2% Iran 259.77 1%
9 Italy 426 2% Ukraine 358.78 2% Indonesia 208.47 1%
10 France 376 2% Poland 320.16 1%

Dem People's Republic Korea

199.66 1%











Total 14,441
Total 11,318.11
Total 6,115.95

% of world total 64%
% of world total 50%
% of world total 27%




% of Annex I total 85%
% of non-Annex I total 71%










Groups total emissions % of world total t CO2 per capita

World#
22,726
na
3.87


Annex I Parties
13,383
59%
11.00


Annex II Parties
10,792
47%
12.00


European Union
3,171
14%
8.47


EIT Parties
2,592
11%
8.18


non-Annex I Parties
8,622
38%
1.85

Table 5: Per-capita CO2 emissions (metric tons): 10 indicative rates

Brazil

1.7

China

2.7

Czech Republic

12.3

India

1.1

Japan

9.3

Malaysia

5.8

Nigeria

0.8

Russian Fed.

10.7

UK

9.5

US

19.7

Note: 1996 figures
Source: adapted from CDIAC as cited in World Resources 2000-2001.
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