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A Brief Overview of Decisions


COP 1 (Berlin, 1995) 21 decisions, 1 resolution 
Parties agreed that the commitments in the Convention were "inadequate" for meeting the Convention's objective. In a decision known as the (PDF) Berlin Mandate they agreed to establish a process to negotiate strengthened commitments for developed countries.

COP 2 (Geneva, 1996) 17 decisions, 1 resolution
The (PDF) Geneva Ministerial Declaration was noted, but not adopted. A decision on guidelines for the national communications to be prepared by developing countries was adopted. Also discussed - Quantified Emissions Limitation and Reduction Objectives (QELROs) for different Parties and an acceleration of the Berlin Mandate talks so that commitments could be adopted at
COP 3.

COP 3 (Kyoto, 1997) 18 decisions, 1 resolution
The (PDF) Kyoto Protocol, was adopted by consensus. The Kyoto Protocol includes legally binding emission targets for developed country (Annex I) Parties for the six major greenhouse gases, which are to be reached by the period 2008-2012. Issues for future international consideration include developing rules for emissions trading, and methodological work in relation to forest sinks.

COP 4 (Buenos Aires, 1998) 19 decisions, 2 resolutions
The (PDF) Buenos Aires Plan of Action, focusing on strengthening the financial mechanism, the development and transfer of technologies and maintaining the momentum in relation to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted.

COP 5 (Bonn, 1999) 22 decisions 
A focus on the adoption of the guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Annex I countries, capacity building, transfer of technology and flexible mechanisms.

COP 6 (The Hague, 2000) 4 decisions, 3 resolutions
Part II of the sixth COP (Bonn, 2000) 2 decisions
Consensus was finally reached on the so-called (PDF) Bonn Agreements. Work was also completed on a number of detailed decisions based on the Bonn Agreements, including capacity-building for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Decisions on several issues, notably the mechanisms land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) and compliance, remained outstanding.

COP 7 (Marrakech, 2001) 39 decisions, 2 resolutions
Parties agreed on a package deal, with key features including rules for ensuring compliance with commitments, consideration of LULUCF Principles in reporting of such data and limited banking of units generated by sinks under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (the extent to which carbon dioxide absorbed by carbon sinks can be counted towards the Kyoto targets). The meeting also adopted the (PDF) Marrakech Ministerial Declaration as an input into the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.

COP 8 (New Delhi, 2002) 25 decisions, 1 resolution
The (PDF) Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development reiterated the need to build on the outcomes of the World Summit.

COP 9 (Milan, 2003) 22 decisions, 1 resolution 
Adopted decisions focus on the institutions and procedures of the Kyoto Protocol and on the implementation of the UNFCCC. The formal decisions adopted by the Conference intend to strengthen the institutional framework of both the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. (PDF) New emission reporting guidelines based on the good-practice guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change were adopted to provide a sound and reliable foundation for reporting on changes in carbon concentrations resulting from land-use changes and forestry. These reports are due in 2005. Another major advance was the agreement on the (PDF) modalities and scope for carbon absorbing forest-management projects in the clean development mechanism (CDM). This agreement completes the package adopted in Marrakesh two years ago and expands the CDM to an additional area of activity. Two funds were further developed, the (PDF) Special Climate Change Fund and the (PDF) Least Developed Countries Fund, which will support technology transfer, adaptation projects and other activities.

COP 10 (Buenos Aires, 2004) 18 decisions, 1 resolution
Parties gathered at COP-10 to complete the unfinished business from the Marrakesh Accords and to reassess the building blocks of the process and to discuss the framing of a new dialogue on the future of climate change policy. They addressed and adopted numerous decisions and conclusions on issues relating to: (PDF) development and transfer of technologies(PDF) land use, land use change and forestry; the UNFCCC’s (PDF) financial mechanism; Annex I national communications; capacity building(PDF) adaptation and response measures; and (PDF) UNFCCC Article 6 (education,training and public awareness) examining the issues of adaptation and mitigation, the needs of least developed countries (LDCs), and future strategies to address climate change.

COP 11 (Montreal, 2005) 15 decisions and 1 resolution
COP 11 addressed issues such as capacity buildingdevelopment and transfer of technologies, the adverse effects of climate change on developing and least developed countries, and several financial and budget-related issues, including guidelines to the Global Environment Facility (GEF), which serves as the Convention’s financial mechanism. The COP also agreed on a process for considering future action beyond 2012 under the UNFCCC.

COP 12 (Nairobi, 2006) 9 decisions and 1 resolution
A wide range of decisions were adopted at COP 12 designed to mitigate climate change and help countries adapt to the effects. There was agreement on the activities for the next few years under the "Nairobi work programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation", as well as on the management of the Adaptation Fund under the Kyoto Protocol. Parties welcomed the "Nairobi Framework" which will provide additional support to developing countries to successfully develop projects for the CDM. Parties in Nairobi also adopted rules of procedure for the Kyoto Protocol's Compliance Committee, making it fully operational.

COP 13 (Bali, 2007) 14 decisions and 1 resolution
COP 13 adopted the Bali Road Map as a two-year process towards a strengthened international climate change agreement. The Bali Road Map includes the pdf-icon Bali Action Plan that was adopted by Decision 1/CP.13. It also includes the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) negotiations and their 2009 deadline, the launch of the Adaptation Fund, the scope and content of the pdf-icon Article 9 review of the Kyoto Protocol, as well as decisions on technology transfer and on reducing emissions from deforestation.

COP 14 (Poznan, 2008) 9 decisions and 1 resolution
COP 14 launched the Adaptation Fund under the Kyoto Protocol, to be filled by a 2% levy on projects under the Clean Development Mechanism. Parties agreed that the Adaptation Fund Board should have legal capacity to grant direct access to developing countries. Further progress was made on a number of issues of particular importance to developing countries, including adaptation, finance, technologyREDD and disaster management. COP 14 also saw Parties endorse an intensified negotiating schedule for 2009. 

COP 15 (Copenhagen, 2009) 13 decisions and 1 resolution
The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference raised climate change policy to the highest political level, with close to 115 world leaders attending the high-level segment. It produced the Copenhagen Accord, which was supported by a majority of countries. This included agreement on the long-term goal of limiting the maximum global average temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius about pre-industrial levels, subject to a review in 2015. A number of developing countries agreed to communicate their efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions every two years. On long-term finance, developed countries agreed to support a goal of mobilizing US$100 billion a year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries.

COP 16 (Cancun, 2010)
12 decisions and 1 resolution
COP 16 produced the Cancun Agreements. Among the highlights, Parties agreed to: commit to a maximum temperature rise of 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels; make fully operational by 2012 a technology mechanism to boost the development and spread of new climate-friendly technologies; establish a Green Climate Fund to provide financing for action in developing countries via thematic funding windows. They also agreed on a new Cancun Adaptation Framework, which included setting up an Adaptation Committee to promote strong, cohesive action on adaptation.

COP 17 (Durban, 2011) 19 decisions and 1 resolution
At COP 17, Parties decided to adopt a universal climate agreement by 2015, with work beginning under a new group called the Ad Hoc working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). Parties also agreed a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol from 1 January 2013. A significantly advanced framework for the reporting of emission reductions for both developed and developing countries was also agreed, taking into consideration the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.

COP 18 (Doha, 2012) 26 decisions and 1 resolution
AT COP 18, governments set out a timetable to adopt a universal climate agreement by 2015, to come into effect in 2020. They completed the work under the pdf-icon Bali Action Plan to concentrate on new work towards a 2015 agreement under a single negotiating stream, the ADP. Governments emphasized the need to increase their ambition to cut greenhouse gases and to help vulnerable countries to adapt. COP 18 also saw the launch of a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020, with the adoption of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol.