14 November 1996
SUBSIDIARY BODY FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVICE
Geneva, 16-18 December 1996
Item 3 of the provisional agenda
I. INTRODUCTION 1- 5 2
A. Mandate 1 - 3 2
B. Scope of the note 4 3
C. Possible actions by the Subsidiary Body for
Scientific and Technological Advice 5 3
II. BACKGROUND 6 -14 3
III. ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION BY THE SUBSIDIARY BODY
FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVICE 15 - 23 5
Summary of Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National
Greenhouse Gas Inventories 8
1. The Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, at its ninth session, held from
7 to 18 February 1994, adopted decisions 9/1 on methodological
issues and 9/2 on guidelines for the preparation of first
communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention
(Annex I Parties). Decision 9/2 stipulated that "the IPCC Draft
Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories should be used in
estimating, reporting and verifying inventory data ... Countries that
already have an established and comparable methodology could continue
to use that methodology, provided that they include sufficient
documentation to back up the data presented" (A/AC.237/55, annex I).
The Conference of the Parties (COP), at its first session, adopted
decision 3/CP.1(1) which stipulates
that the guidelines for the preparation of first communications by
Annex I Parties, as elaborated in the annex to decision 9/2 of the
Committee, should continue to be used by Annex I Parties in preparing
their communications. It also stipulates that Annex I Parties should
submit annually their emission inventory data by 15 April. By its
decision 4/CP.1, the Conference of the Parties decided to use the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for
National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for the preparation of
communications by Parties included in Annex I to the
2. At its second session, the Conference of the Parties, by its
decision 9/CP.2,(2) adopted revised
guidelines for the preparation of communications by Parties included
in Annex I to the Convention. It also stipulated that anthropogenic
emissions and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases (GHG) should
be reported in a complete, transparent and comparable way that avoids
double-counting or incomplete counting and it requested the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) to
consider, at its fourth session, any other possible additional
revisions to the guidelines arising from, inter alia, any
modifications to the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories. At the same session, the COP also decided (decision
10/CP.2) that the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories(3) or the simplified
default methodologies adopted by the IPCC should be used by non-Annex
I Parties, as appropriate and to the extent possible, in the
fulfilment of their commitments under the Convention.
3. Also, by its decision 9/CP.2, the Conference of the Parties
decided that Annex I Parties should report on partially fluorinated
hydrocarbons (HFCs), perfluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur
hexafluoride (SF6 ). According to decision 10/CP.2,
non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to include partially fluorinated
compounds in their national inventories, as appropriate.
4. The purpose of this note is to provide the SBSTA with an
overview of the most important revisions and additions to the
IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories as
approved by the twelfth plenary session of the IPCC, held in Mexico
City from 11 to 13 September 1996. It also identifies issues for
consideration by the SBSTA regarding their adoption and
implementation. The revised guidelines, including revisions and
additions, are referred to in this document as the Revised 1996
Guidelines(4) and the original
guidelines are referred to as IPCC Guidelines (1995)
5. On the basis of this note, the SBSTA may wish to:
(a) Approve the Revised 1996 Guidelines developed by the
IPCC. In this regard Parties may wish to clarify the approach by
which emissions related to the consumption of HFCs, PFCs and
SF6 are to be reported; and, if approved,
(b) Decide how Parties should use the Revised 1996
Guidelines to report GHG inventories.
6. The IPCC initiated work to revise the IPCC Guidelines
(1995) at its tenth session, held in Nairobi from 10 to 12
November 1994, for the following sectors: (a) fuel combustion, (b)
industrial processes, (c) land-use change and forestry, (d)
agricultural soils, and (e) waste. At its eleventh session, held in
Rome from 11 to 15 December 1995, the IPCC decided to incorporate
methane emissions from rice cultivation. It subsequently accelerated
work on this sector at the behest of the SBSTA (FCCC/SBSTA/1996/8,
7. The IPCC convened seven expert groups to address the various
methodological issues. More than 200 scientists and technical
experts, approximately half of them from developing countries,
contributed to the process. The Revised 1996 Guidelines
underwent an expert peer review and a governmental review during the
summer of 1996.
8. The IPCC focused on revising and simplifying methods and
incorporating new data in particular relating to developing
countries. The basic structure of the guidelines has not changed, but
improvements and additional data are provided. For example, the basic
methods for estimating CO2 in the energy and
transportation sectors do not change significantly. Similarly the
methods for estimating emissions from the cement industry and from
major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) such as synthetic
fertilizers do not change. The revisions provide additional details
and source categories and more country or region-specific emission
and activity data that may be useful particularly to non-Annex I
Parties, for example, on methane emissions from rice cultivation.
Also, in developing the guidelines, an effort was made to harmonize
the methodologies with other international emission inventory
methods, such as CORINAIR.
9. The Revised 1996 Guidelines provide methods for
estimating emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF6, thereby
supporting important provisions of decisions 9/CP.2 and 10/CP.2. The
HFCs and PFCs are alternatives to ozone-depleting substances and are
not controlled under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete
the Ozone Layer. The use of HFCs and some PFCs is expected to grow in
the future. It is anticipated that these two compounds will be used
in refrigeration and air-conditioning, fire suppression, aerosol
sprays, solvent cleaning and foam blowing. SF6 is used in
gas insulation switchgear, circuit-breakers, fire suppression and
other applications. The chemicals have high global warming potentials
and some have long atmospheric residence times. In some instances
they are the by-products of industrial processes.
10. The Revised 1996 Guidelines indicate that emissions
of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 can be estimated using
either of two approaches, namely, a potential
emission approach or an actual emission
(6) The former approach uses annual
data on production, exports, imports and destruction which are
generally available to most countries. The emission estimates so
derived tend to be high because they do not take into consideration
storage in equipment and the slow release of the chemicals over time.
Over a period of 15-30 years the error will tend toward zero as
products are retired. This approach to reporting has been adopted by
the Montreal Protocol.
11. The actual approach attempts to take into account the
time lag between consumption and emissions. The time lag occurs
because chemicals used in new equipment tend to leak out over time,
more specifically during manufacturing, operation and disposal. The
IPCC provides formulae and leakage coefficients from the literature,
assuming an equipment lifetime of 15-30 years, to estimate annual
emissions. This approach provides low estimates in the early years.
It tends to mask the possible long-term implications of chemicals
accumulating in equipment and products.
12. It should be noted that the approaches used to calculate
emissions from solid waste disposal sites (default methodology) and
from some agricultural sources also recognize the time-dependent
nature of emissions. However, these activities have been going on for
a long time and the level of these activities generally changes
slowly. The choice of approach is likely to matter much less than for
a new chemical whose use is growing rapidly.
13. The revised guidelines were accepted by the twelfth session of
the IPCC, held in Mexico City from 11 to 13 September 1996. A summary
of the revised guidelines, as provided by the IPCC secretariat, is
given in the annex. The IPCC considered, but did not accept, a new
methodology on harvested wood products. It will hold an expert
meeting on the subject in 1997.
14. The guidelines are not expected to be revised significantly in
the near future, i.e., prior to the year 2000, unless new scientific
and technical information becomes available, revisions are requested
by a participating State of the IPCC, or the SBSTA requests the IPCC
to prepare additional revisions. Some minor revisions might occur,
for example, if the IPCC were to reach agreement on wood products.
Additional regional and country-specific emission factors could be
compiled if warranted. A process to provide an addendum with such
data on emission factors could be explored.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVICE
Adoption of the IPCC Revised 1996
15. Many Annex I Parties are currently preparing their second
national communication, including national emission inventories, due
by 15 April 1997. Non-Annex I Parties are also preparing their GHG
emission inventories. Given the limited resources for these
activities, it is important for the SBSTA to determine whether it
wishes to adopt a decision recommending the use of all or part of the
Revised 1996 Guidelines so that Parties will know how to
Approach for reporting HFC, PFC and SF6
16. The two approaches described above for HFC, PFC and
SF6 emissions will generally provide different estimates.
Each approach has its merits, but the policy implications differ.
Also, the IPCC guidelines could be applied differently by the
Parties, which could lead to inconsistent emission inventories and
projections among Parties. The SBSTA may wish to clarify which
approach should be used for reporting national emission
inventories of these gases, since the demand for some is growing
significantly world wide.
When should the Parties start using the Revised 1996
Guidelines for reporting?
Annex I Parties
17. If the SBSTA adopts all or part of the Revised 1996
Guidelines for reporting, this would have several technical,
policy and financial consequences for Annex I Parties.
18. First, the application of the methods could make it more
difficult to assess long-term trends, since it would create an
appearance of higher emissions owing solely to the reporting of new
industrial gases by many Parties. Also, improvements to the methods
are likely to cause some change in emissions in several other source
categories. To make it easier to analyse such data, the usual
practice of the scientific community, when introducing a revised
methodology or new instrument, is to utilize both methods
simultaneously for a period of time. The aim is to collect and
compare two sets of data in order to build confidence in the new
technique and to understand the differences.
19. Using the revised methodology could also have several policy
implications. For example, it could affect how progress by Annex I
Parties towards meeting their national 1990 to 2000 aims is assessed.
Also, the choice of the method and base year could be relevant to a
possible future protocol or other legal instrument. While it would
not appear practical or appropriate to use a revised data set as a
means to assess whether Annex I Parties have achieved commitments
made at an earlier time on a different basis, the SBSTA may wish to
consider this issue when providing guidance for future compilation
and synthesis reports. The SBSTA may wish to call the attention of
the SBI and the AGBM to the latter issue.
20. With regard to the technical issue of how to ensure that
long-term trends can be assessed, the SBSTA may wish to consider the
following options while bearing in mind the possible financial
(a) Apply the revised guidelines to recalculate 1990 GHG
inventories (and any other base year) and all subsequent
(b) Apply the revised methods as a supplement to the IPCC
Guidelines (1995) on a voluntary basis for inventories due in April
1997 and on a mandatory basis for inventories due in 1998 and 1999.
Inventories due after 1999 would use only the revised guidelines. On
the basis of the 1997-1999 data, develop "factors" to estimate any
gap created by the revised method. Such factors might then be used to
compare data sets;
(c) Apply both methods, initially on a voluntary basis in 1997,
and thereafter for all years till 2002, that is, until data for the
year 2000 are provided.
Non-Annex I Parties
21. According to decision 10/CP.2, the Guidelines for National
Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1995) or the simplified default
methodologies adopted by the IPCC should be used by non-Annex I
Parties, as appropriate and to the extent possible, in the fulfilment
of their commitments under the Convention. Non-Annex I Parties should
provide the best available data in their inventory. To this end such
data should be provided for the year 1994. Alternatively, non-Annex I
Parties may provide such data for the year 1990. Information should
be provided on the following greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide
(CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide
(N2O), to the extent the Party's capacities permit. In
addition, Parties are encouraged to include in their national
inventories the fully-fluorinated compounds, as
22. Since non-Annex I Parties are preparing their inventories for
the first time, there are yet no trends to be assessed. Furthermore,
the revised guidelines do more adequately reflect the conditions in
developing countries than the IPCC Guidelines (1995). Consequently,
the SBSTA may wish to urge non-Annex I Parties to apply the
Revised 1996 Guidelines, as appropriate, in reporting their
initial national GHG inventories.
How much flexibility should Parties be allowed in
calculating emissions in the future?
23. The IPCC Guidelines (1995) allow Parties to utilize
default methods, more accurate and advanced methods (Tier 2) or
methods of their choice, providing they document the methods. The
extent to which Parties have chosen to use different methods is not
fully known. It is also not known whether the current flexible
approach makes a significant difference in emission estimates and how
incompatible data and poor statistics affect emission estimates. If
the SBSTA wishes to assess the desirability of changes in this
approach, it may be useful to obtain further information. In this
regard the secretariat could be asked to perform additional analysis.
The SBSTA may also wish to call this question to the attention of the
1.1 This annex, including Table 1, summarises the additions and
revisions to the 1995 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories (1995 IPCC Guidelines). It also describes
efforts made by the IPCC to harmonize methods with others. The
additions and revisions were accepted by the IPCC at its Twelfth
Session held in Mexico City (11-13 September 1996) after acceptance
by Working Group I at its Sixth Session held in Mexico City (10
September 1996) in accordance with IPCC procedures. They are called
the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories. Within this annex, a revision of an existing
methodology or default data is referred to as a 'revision,
'revised method or 'revised data. Additional methods
and default data are defined as 'new methods or 'new
2. Energy Chapter
2.1 The energy chapter contains the following improvements and
harmonisation of international (IPCC and CORINAIR) emission
estimation methodologies and allocating of emissions from
autoproducers to the sector where they are generated and not to the
development of a new Tier 1 method for estimating
non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and SO2 emissions
based on fuel consumption;
development of a new Tier 2 method for estimating
emissions from aircraft;
inclusion of new default values for various types of
traditional biomass fuels;
clarification of the definition of National Navigation (the
definition of International Marine Bunkers remains
3. Industrial Processes Chapter
3.1 The industrial process chapter contains a broad range of
new estimation methodologies for the so-called "new gases",
that is perfluorocarbons, PFCs (e.g. CF4 and
C2F6), HFCs (e.g. HFC-125 and HFC-134a),
sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), the direct GHG
(CO2, CH4, and N2O), and ozone and
aerosol precursors (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC) from
industrial non-energy processes.
3.2 Direct GHG: The new methodologies cover
CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from the
production of mineral compounds, chemical industries and metal
manufacture. The estimation of CO2 emissions from cement
production remains unchanged, but the methodologies for
N2O emissions from nitric and adipic acid production have
been improved and revised.
3.3 Aerosol and ozone precursors: For SO2, NOx,
CO, NMVOC, new methodologies are presented, which draw upon
and improve existing international methodologies. The sectors covered
are: mineral compounds production, chemical industries and metal
3.4 Fluorocarbons and SF6: For HFCs and PFCs, and SF6, methodologies are provided to estimate by-product and fugitive emissions from aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) manufacturing processes, as well as emissions from their production and consumption. Two approaches are given: Tier 1 (a, b) for potential emissions, and Tier 2, for actual emissions. Potential emissions of PFCs, HFCs, and SF6 are equal to the amount of a chemical consumed in a country, minus the amount of a chemical recovered for destruction or export in the year of consideration. Actual emissions estimates take into account the time lag between consumption and emissions. The Tier 2 methodology is, therefore, the most accurate estimation approach.
4. Land-use Change and Forestry Chapter
4.1 Several revisions to the methods for the Land-use Change and
Forestry chapter are provided. One such revision is the method for
estimating CO2 fluxes from soils, as described
4.2 The revisions to the Land-Use Change and Forestry
Chapter greatly extend and improve the range and quality of the
default data, particularly for the tropics, where national forestry
statistics are sometimes less easily accessible than those data in
the temperate or boreal regions. The revisions can be
summarised by changes in (a) default data and in (b) methods, as
(a) Default data
Classification system for land cover types: A
revised system more consistent with sources of national,
regional and international data, such as forest conversion rates and
forest inventories was developed. The revised classification
system better reflects the diversity of forest types. For the
tropics, three classes of forests have been replaced with six, based
on differences in rainfall amount, seasonality, and
Rates of forest conversion: New FAO default data
are provided for each country and forest type according to the
proposed land-cover classification system. These data have been
compiled for the tropics for the 1980-90 period. Such
revisions were incorporated because country-level data are
often difficult to obtain for many tropical countries; the 1995
IPCC Guidelines contain no such data.
Aboveground biomass for native tropical forests. Emissions
estimates from the land-use change and forestry can be highly
sensitive to such input data and therefore a priority was given to
improving aboveground biomass data. Since publication of the 1995
IPCC Guidelines, better datasets have become available drawing
upon larger regional studies. The revisions now include a
large database of default values for Africa, America, and Asia for
the revised land-cover classification system. Additional
data based on individual forest inventories (suitable for converting
to biomass) for many tropical countries are also included. None of
the default values are separated into primary and secondary forests
(as in the 1995 IPCC Guidelines) because it was felt by
experts that this was not a practical classification, given the
variability of definitions in different regions.
Rates of tropical forest regrowth. Revised default
data are given for forest regrowth; the data are related to the
biomass data and are reported for the three tropical regions by
forest type according to the revised classification
Estimation of net CO2 emissions from soil
carbon: In the 1995 IPCC Guidelines, CO2
estimates are based upon the product of the rate of change in
area of a given land-use and the rate of change of soil carbon. The
revised method estimates changes in soil carbon pools
associated with altered land-use or land management practices. Thus,
all categories of agriculturally-impacted lands, including
conversions of forest or other vegetation to agriculture, land
abandonment, shifting cultivation and permanent agriculture, are
included in the methodology. A default stock method is employed to
estimate CO2 fluxes associated with agricultural
activities for a 20-year inventory period. This area of the IPCC
methodology has been much improved because better scientific data is
now available. The revised method is more compatible with
potential policy analysis.
5. Agriculture Chapter
5.1 Three sections of this chapter have been revised,
that is, (1) methane emissions from rice cultivation, (2) nitrous
oxide emissions from agricultural soils and (3) manure management.
For the estimation of N2O emissions, the proposed default
methods and data are essentially new.
5.2 Methane Emissions from Rice
Cultivation. In the 1995 IPCC Guidelines, the
estimation of CH4 emissions from wetland rice cultivation
is a function of the CH4 emission factor, area of rice
cultivated and the season length. One critical default parameter is
the CH4 emission factor, which is based upon temperature.
It was determined that the relationship between CH4
emissions and soil temperature as assumed in the 1995 IPCC
Guidelines was no longer appropriate because new data suggest
that the seasonally integrated CH4 flux depends much more
on the input of organic carbon, water regime, time and duration of
drainage and soil type than on local temperature. The
revised methodology is a function of the emission factor
integrated over a cropping season for particular rice water regime,
for a given organic amendment, and of the annual harvested area
cultivated under these conditions. The latter is given by the
cultivated area times the number of cropping seasons per
5.3 The revisions to the method use
internationally-agreed definitions for rice eco-systems classified
according to the water regime and a range of CH4 emission
scaling factors relative to continuously flooded rice eco-systems for
soils without organic amendment. A default seasonally integrated
emission factor is also provided for the continuously-flooded regime,
5.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils and Manure Management. A new default method for calculating national emissions of N2O from agriculture is provided. The new N2O method is a revision of the method in the 1995 IPCC Guidelines. It includes more sources of N2O from agricultural activities and makes explicit recommendations on N2O emission factors. The new method accounts for the application of N-fertilisers to the soil and N uptake in crops and subsequently tracks the flow of N as it moves through the (anthropogenic) animal and human food chain. Three categories of N2O sources are distinguished in the new methodology, (1) direct emissions from agricultural soils, (2) emissions from animal production, and (3) N2O emissions indirectly induced by agricultural activities(9)
. Because a larger number of sources and pathways are considered,
the new N2O methodology affects several source
sectors. Emissions are reported in several sections of the
Guidelines, namely, Manure Management (Section 4.2, 1995
IPCC Guidelines), Agricultural Soils (Section 4.5, 1995 IPCC
Guidelines), and Waste (Section 6.3, 1995 IPCC
Guidelines). The input data required can be obtained from FAO
5.5 The new method provides a comprehensive description of N2O emissions from agriculturally-related activities by accounting for previously omitted N2O sources. Using this method, global N2O emission estimates imply that atmospheric N2O input from agricultural production as a whole has apparently been previously underestimated by at least 70%. Nitrous oxide emissions resulting from atmospheric deposition are assigned to the NO3 or NH3 emitting country(10)
6.1 The chapter on waste addresses various topics, including:
improved waste disposal data, evaluation of the methodologies for
solid waste and wastewater, definitions of activities and
uncertainties of CH4 emission estimates. The main
improvements to the methods and default data are as
6.2 Solid Waste
Site classification. A new term - solid waste
disposal site - has been proposed to refer to all sites and to
replace the terminology in the 1995 IPCC Guidelines
for 'landfills' and 'open dumps'. The new term was proposed
because experience suggests that the existing categories do not
adequately include the entire range of waste disposal sites that
exist in all countries. Solid waste disposal sites include all sites
where waste is deposited and is likely to generate some methane.
Sites are further classified according to the level of site
management and depth.
Methane correction factor. The new site classification is used to derive a methane correction factor (MCF) to account for the methane generation potential of the site. The amount of methane produced depends in part upon the available oxygen and the level of compaction of the waste. In general, waste in managed sites potentially generates more methane than waste in unmanaged sites. Furthermore, the deeper the site, the greater the methane generation potential. The methane correction factor for each type of site reflects these differences in methane generation potential. The site classification recognises that some developing countries, or countries with-economies-in-transition, may have a majority of less-well managed or unmanaged sites, often with a lower methane-producing potential than well managed sites.
Waste data. A wide range of revised and new
default data on waste generation, composition and disposal data
in many additional developed and developing countries is provided.. A
definition for Municipal Solid Waste and a method for calculating the
Degradable Organic Carbon content of various waste streams are now
included in the revised chapter.
Methodology. The default methodology was evaluated and retained. The methodology uses a zero-order equation requiring data on population, waste landfills, and waste composition as proposed by Bingemar and Crutzen (1987).
A revised method and default data for calculating emissions from wastewater and sludge is included. The amount of CH4 produced from these systems depends upon several factors, including the characteristics of the wastewater and the management system, and temperature. These factors are highly dependent upon the waste treatment system used. The revised methodology allows countries to tailor the estimation approaches more precisely to their wastewater management systems. This is accomplished by MCF that accounts for the differing CH4 generating potential of different wastewater management systems. In addition, the revised methodology uses data that is commonly available from most countries, or which can be estimated by wastewater experts.
6.4 Human sewage
A new methodology and default data are provided for the
estimation of N2O nitrous oxide emissions from human
sewage disposed to land, and in subsequent run-off to rivers and
estuaries. There is no such methodology in the 1995 IPCC
7. Harmonisation of International Emission Estimation
7.1 Progress has been made in the harmonisation of the IPCC and EMEP/CORINAIR methodologies to allow more direct comparison of the two approaches. These changes are mainly in the energy chapter, but harmonisation was a theme in all other chapters, including industrial processes. Examples of harmonisation are given below from the energy chapter:
Biomass fuels are allocated to the various source categories (new). As in the 1995 IPCC Guidelines, CO2 from biomass will not be reported in national totals as this is captured in the Land-use Change and Forestry Chapter.
Emissions from fuel used for electricity and heat production by autoproducers will be included in the sector where it is generated and not with the transformation industries.
Treatment of evaporative emissions (NMVOCs) from road transport in
the Tier 2 method of IPCC is made consistent with CORINAIR.
Combustion and evaporative emissions are to be reported separately.
However, in the new Tier I IPCC method, all emissions from
road transport are included together under fuel
Development of a new Tier 2 method for estimating
emissions from aircraft.
Australian Methodology for the Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (1996).
Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook (1996), 1st Edition, European Environmental Agency.
1995 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories: Reporting Instructions (Volume 1); Workbook (Volume
2); Reference Manual (Volume 3).
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CO2 Carbon dioxide
N2O Nitrous oxide
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
NOx Sum of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide
CO Carbon monoxide
NMVOC Non-methane volatile organic compounds
Table 1. Additions/revisions to the IPCC Guidelines
for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 1995
- assignment of GHG emissions from autoproducers to the
sector where they were generated and not to the
- development of a Tier 1 method for estimating non- CO2
GHG and SO2 emissions based on fuel consumption
- development of a Tier 2 method for estimating emissions
from aircraft (new);
- inclusion of default values for various types of traditional biomass fuels (new); and
- clarification of the definition of National Navigation (the definition of International Marine Bunkers remains unchanged).
- mineral production;
- chemical industries;
- metal manufacture.
- ozone precursors (NOx, CO, NMVOC) from :
- chemical industries
- metal manufacture
and halocarbons (PFCs, HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from industrial processes and uses. The following methods are proposed:
- Tier 1 (a): for bulk chemicals;
- Tier 1 (b): for bulk chemicals and chemicals stored in products;
-Tier 2 : product (containing PFCs, HFCs, SF6) lifetimes are taken into account.
1 Chapter 3, "Solvents and other product use" has not been revised.
2 A revision of an existing methodology or default data is referred to as a 'revision. In cases where an additional method has been developed and default data provided, this is defined as 'new.
Revised method and new default data for the estimation of Methane Emissions from Rice Cultivation are proposed. The revised method uses:
-internationally-agreed definitions of rice ecosystems (revision);
- default data (e.g. seasonally integrated CH4 emission factors) (new);
- scaling factors for CH4 emissions factors relative to continuously flooded fields (without-organic amendment ) (new).
Nitrous oxides from agricultural soils and manure management
Additions and revisions include:
-default method for the estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from Manure Management and Agricultural soils (new);
- revised default emission factors for the estimation of direct emissions of N2O from soils (revision); and
Nitrous oxides from Agricultural Soils and Manure Management
- default data (e.g. N2O emission factors for animal waste and for indirect emissions) (new).
Revised /new default data and classification are suggested for:
- land-cover types (revision);
- rates of forest conversion (new);
- aboveground biomass for native tropical forests (revision);
- rates of tropical forest regrowth (revision);
Method for the estimation of CO2 fluxes from agricultural soils (revision) and default data (new).
Revised/new data and classification are listed below for:
- solid waste disposal site classification: definition encompasses all sites;
- methane correction factor to account for the methane generation potential of the site (new);
- wider range of default data for waste generation,
composition and disposal data (revision).
- revised approach and default data for calculating CH4 emissions (revision) and
- human sewage method and default data for the
estimation of N2O emissions (new).