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  • Conference of the Parties (COP)

    The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP, at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.

  • Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP)

    The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. All States that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are represented at the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), while States that are not Parties participate as observers. The CMP reviews the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation.

  • Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)

    The SBSTA supports the work of the COP and the CMP through the provision of timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention or its Kyoto Protocol.

  • Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI)

    The SBI supports the work of the COP and the CMP through the assessment and review of the effective implementation of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol.

  • Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP)

    The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) is a subsidiary body that was established by decision 1/CP.17 in December 2011. The mandate of the ADP is to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties, which is to be completed no later than 2015 in order for it to be adopted at the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020. By the same decision, the COP launched a workplan on enhancing mitigation ambition to identify and to explore options for a range of actions that can close the ambition gap with a view to ensuring the highest possible mitigation efforts by all Parties.

  • Bureau of the COP and the CMP

    The Bureau supports the COP and the CMP through the provision of advice and guidance regarding the ongoing work under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, the organization of their sessions and the operation of the secretariat, especially at times when the COP and the CMP are not in session. The Bureau is elected from representatives of Parties nominated by each of the five United Nations regional groups and small island developing States.

  • Compliance Committee

    The functions of the Compliance Committee of the Kyoto Protocol are to provide advice and assistance to Parties in implementing the Kyoto Protocol, promote compliance by Parties with their commitments and determine cases of non-compliance and apply consequences in cases where Parties are not complying with their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

  • CDM EB - Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    The CDM Executive Board supervises the Kyoto Protocols CDM under the authority and guidance of the CMP. The CDM Executive Board is the ultimate point of contact for CDM project participants for the registration of projects and the issuance of certified emission reductions.

  • Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC)

    The JISC, under the authority and guidance of the CMP, supervises the verification procedure for submitted projects to confirm that the ensuing reductions of emissions by sources or enhancements of anthropogenic removals by sinks meet the relevant requirements of Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol and the joint implementation guidelines.

  • Technology Executive Committee (TEC)

    The Technology Executive Committee, together with the Climate Technology Centre and Network, consistent with their respective functions, is mandated to facilitate the effective implementation of the Technology Mechanism, under the guidance of the COP. The TEC was established by the COP at its sixteenth session in decision 1/CP.16.

  • Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)

    The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) is accountable to, and under the guidance of, the COP through an advisory board. The Advisory Board of the CTCN was established at COP 18 and gives guidance to the CTCN on how to prioritize requests from developing countries and, in general, it monitors, assesses and evaluates the performance of the CTCN.

  • Adaptation Committee

    The Adaptation Committee was established by the COP at its sixteenth session as part of the Cancun Agreements (decision 1/CP.16) to promote the implementation of enhanced action on adaptation in a coherent manner under the Convention, inter alia, through various functions. Its work was launched at COP 17.

  • Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage

    The Executive Committee of the Warsaw international mechanism was established by decision 2/CP.19 to guide the implementation of the functions of the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage. The Executive Committee functions under the guidance of, and is accountable to, the Conference of the Parties.

  • Standing Committee on Finance (SCF)

    The mandate of the Standing Committee on Finance is to assist the COP in exercising its functions with respect to the financial mechanism of the Convention in terms of the following: improving coherence and coordination in the delivery of climate change financing; rationalization of the financial mechanism; mobilization of financial resources; and measurement, reporting and verification of support provided to developing country Parties. It was established by the COP at its sixteenth session by decision 1/CP.16. Its roles and functions were further defined and its composition and working modalities elaborated on at COP 17.

  • Adaptation Fund Board (AFB)

    The AFB supervises and manages the Adaptation Fund and is fully accountable to the CMP. The Adaptation Fund was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2 per cent share of the proceeds from certified emission reductions issued by the Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism and from other sources of funding.

  • Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG)

    The COP established the LEG, the membership of which is to be nominated by Parties, with the objective of supporting the preparation and implementation strategies of national adaptation programmes of action.

  • Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE)

    The COP established the CGE with the objective of improving the process of the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention.

  • Secretariat

    The UNFCCC secretariat provides organizational support and technical expertise to the UNFCCC negotiations and institutions and facilitates the flow of authoritative information on the implementation of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. This includes the development and effective implementation of innovative approaches to mitigate climate change and drive sustainable development.

  • United Nations institutional linkage

    The United Nations serves as Depository for the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. The secretariat is institutionally linked to the United Nations without being integrated into any programme and is administered under United Nations rules and regulations.

  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)

    The GEF is an operational entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention that provides financial support to the activities and projects of developing country Parties. The COP regularly provides guidance to the GEF.

  • Green Climate Fund (GCF)

    The GCF is an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention and is accountable to and functions under the guidance of the COP. It is governed by a Board comprising 24 members (with equal numbers from developed and developing country Parties) and is intended to be the main fund for global climate change finance in the context of mobilizing USD 100 billion by 2020. The GCF was established by the COP at its sixteenth session by decision 1/CP.16, designed throughout 2011 by a Transitional Committee and launched at COP 17 through decision 3/CP.17, including the governing instrument for the GCF.

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    The IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses, at regular intervals, the most recent scientific, technical and socioeconomic information produced worldwide, relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate-related data or parameters. The COP receives the outputs of the IPCC and uses IPCC data and information as a baseline on the state of knowledge on climate change in making science based decisions.  For example, the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC, which is due in 2014, will provide input into the COP review of the long term temperature goal and the work of the Ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action.

  • Recent Ad Hoc Working Groups That Have Concluded Their Work

    Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP)
    Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA)