Parties requested the secretariat to organize, before its thirty-sixth session, an expert meeting to
address issues related to a range of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse
effects of climate change, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset events, taking
into consideration experience at all levels.
The expert meeting took into account the following questions in accordance with the mandate:
1. What is the full range of approaches and tools that can be used to address the risk of loss and damage, at
all levels and for a broad range of sectors and ecosystems, considering both extreme weather events and slow
onset events? Such approaches and tools include, inter alia, conventional, non-conventional and innovative
instruments to address specific types of loss and damage in the context of this thematic area, especially
those driven by the multiplying, magnifying and intensifying effects of climate change at the national,
subnational and local levels. What is known about the relative cost-effectiveness of these tools?
2. What are the foundational resource requirements (e.g. budget, infrastructure, and technical capacity for
implementation) in order for different strategies and tools to be effectively applied?
3. What are the lessons learned from existing efforts within both the public and private sectors, considering
elements of design, limitations, challenges and best practices?
4. What are the links and synergies between risk reduction and other instruments such as risk transfer? How
can comprehensive risk management portfolios or toolkits be designed?
5. How can risk management approaches be tailored to national contexts? How can
Parties and other stakeholders evaluate which tools might be most appropriate for their particular risks and